《破局1950》韩立冬分析特派员过往破绽 周春山大为震惊

pXL7z-news 发布时间: 2020-07-11 02:05:23

“极速赛车pk10彩票”TheRomanreformersweresatisfiedtocallthemselvesStoics;and,inreviewingtheStoicsystem,wesawtowhatanextenttheywelcomedanddevelopedsomeofitsfundamental180thoughts.ButwehavenowtoaddthatthecurrentwhichborethemonhaditssourcedeeperdownthantheelaboratecombinationsofZenoandChrysippus,andenteredintothecompositionofeveryothersystemthatactedontheRomanintellectsimultaneouslywiththeirs.Thuswhateverforcesco-operatedwithStoicismhadtheeffectnotofcomplicatingbutofsimplifyingitstendencies,bybringingintoexclusiveprominencetheoriginalimpulsewhencetheysprang,whichwastheideaofNaturalLaw.HencetheformultimatelyassumedbyRomanthoughtwasaphilosophyofNature,sometimesappearingmoreunderaStoic,andsometimesmoreunderaCynicguise.EverythinginRomanpoetrythatisnotcopiedfromGreekmodelsorinspiredbyItalianpassion—inotherwords,itsdidactic,descriptive,andsatiricelements—maybetracedtothisphilosophy.Doubtlesstheinculcationofusefularts,thedelightinbeautifulscenery,thepraisesofrusticsimplicity,thefierceprotestsagainstviceunderallitsforms,andthecelebrationofanimperialdestiny,whichformthestapleofRome’snationalliterature,springfromherowndeepestlife;butthequickeningpowerofGreekthoughtwasneededtodevelopethemintoarticulateexpression.

Thefinalantithesisofconsciouslifeisthatbetweenthe398individualandthestate.Inthissense,Aristotle’sPoliticsisthecompletionofhisEthics.Itisonlyinawell-orderedcommunitythatmoralhabitscanbeacquired;anditisonlyinsuchacommunitythatthebestorintellectuallifecanbeattained,although,properlyspeaking,itisnotasociallife.Nevertheless,thePolitics,likeeveryotherportionofAristotle’ssystem,reproduceswithinitselftheelementsofanindependentwhole.Tounderstanditsinternalorganisation,wemustbeginbydisregardingAristotle’sabortiveclassification(chieflyadaptedfromPlato)ofconstitutionsintothreelegitimate—Monarchy,Aristocracy,andRepublic;andthreeillegitimate—Democracy,Oligarchy,andTyranny.Aristotledistinguishesthembysayingthatthelegitimateformsaregovernedwithaviewtothegeneralgood;theillegitimatewithaviewtotheinterestsofparticularclassesorpersons.But,inpointoffact,asZellershows,291hecannotkeepupthisdistinction;andweshallbetterunderstandhistrueideabysubstitutingforitanother—thatbetweentheintellectualandthematerialstate.Theobjectoftheoneistosecurethehighestcultureforarulingcaste,whoaretoabstainfromindustrialoccupations,andtobesupportedbythelabourofadependentpopulation.Suchagovernmentmaybeeithermonarchicaloraristocratic;butitmustnecessarilybeinthehandsofafew.Theobjectoftheotheristomaintainastableequilibriumbetweentheopposinginterestsofrichandpoor—twoclassespracticallydistinguishedasthefewandthemany.Thisendisbestattainedwheresupremepowerbelongstothemiddleclass.Thedeviationsarerepresentedbyoligarchyandtyrannyontheoneside,andbyextremedemocracyontheother.Wheresuchconstitutionsexist,thebestmodeofpreservingthemistomoderatetheircharacteristicexcessbyborrowingcertaininstitutionsfromtheoppositeformofgovernment,orbymodifyingtheirowninstitutionsinaconciliatorysense.

Thewordslastquoted,whichinaChristiansensearetrueenough,leadusovertothecontrastingviewofAristotle’stheology,tothefalsetheoryofitheldbycriticslikeProf.St.GeorgeMivart.TheStagiriteagreeswithCatholictheisminacceptingapersonalGod,andheagreeswiththeFirstArticleoftheEnglishChurch,thoughnotwiththePentateuch,insayingthatGodiswithoutpartsorpassions;buttherehisagreementceases.Excludingsuchathingasdivineinterferencewithnature,histheologyofcourseexcludesthepossibilityofrevelation,inspiration,miracles,andgrace.Noristhisamereomission;itisanecessityofthesystem.Iftherecan353benoexistencewithouttime,notimewithoutmotion,nomotionwithoutunrealiseddesire,nodesirewithoutanideal,noidealbuteternallyself-thinkingthought—thenitlogicallyfollowsthatGod,inthesenseofsuchathought,mustnotinteresthimselfintheaffairsofmen.Again,AristotelianismequallyexcludestheargumentsbywhichmoderntheologianshavesoughttoprovetheexistenceofGod.Herealsothesystemistruetoitscontemporaneous,statical,superficialcharacter.TheFirstMoverisnotseparatedfromusbyachainofcausesextendingthroughpastages,butbyaninterveningbreadthofspaceandthewheelswithinwheelsofacosmicmachine.Aristotlehadnodifficultyinconceivingwhatsomehavesincedeclaredtobeinconceivable,aseriesofantecedentswithoutanybeginningintime;itwasratherthebeginningofsuchaseriesthathecouldnotmakeintelligibletohimself.Nor,aswehaveseen,didhethinkthattheadaptationinlivingorganismsofeachparttoeveryotherrequiredanexternalexplanation.Farlessdiditoccurtohimthattheproductionofimpressionsonoursenseswasduetotheagencyofasupernaturalpower.ItisabsolutelycertainthathewouldhaverejectedtheCartesianargument,accordingtowhichaperfectbeingmustexistifitbeonlyconceivable—existencebeingnecessarilyinvolvedintheideaofperfection.252Finally,notrecognisingsuchafacultyasconscience,hewouldnothaveadmittedittobethevoiceofGodspeakinginthesoul.Itwas,nodoubt,fortheseandsimilarreasonsthatallthemostvigorousintellectsofHellasrangedthemselveseitherontheStoicorontheScepticside,leavingthehalfheartedcompromiseofEpicurustothosewhocouldnotthinkoutanyonetheoryconsistently,orwho,liketheRomansatfirst,werenotacquaintedwithanysystembuthis.Henceforth,duringaperiodofsomecenturies,thewholephilosophicmovementisdeterminedbytheinteractionofthesetwofundamentalforces.ThefirsteffectoftheirconflictwastoimposeonScepticismanimportantmodification,illustratingitsessentiallyparasiticcharacter.Wehaveseenit,asageneraltendencyoftheGreekmind,clingingtotheverytextureofmythology,accompanyingtheearliestsystematiccompilationoffacts,aidingthehumanisticattacksonphysicalscience,associatedwiththefirstgreatreligiousreaction,operatingasthedialecticofdialecticitself,andfinallyassumingtheformofashadowymorality,inrivalrywithandimitationofethicalsystemsbasedonapositiveandsubstantialdoctrine.WehavenowtotraceitsmetamorphosisintoacriticalsystemextendingitsramificationsinparallelismwiththeimmensedogmaticstructureofStoicism,andsimultaneouslyendeavouringtoreachthesamepracticalresultsbyamoreelasticadaptation144totheinfirmitiesofhumanreasonandtheuncertaintiesofsensibleexperience.Assuch,weshallalsohavetostudyitsinfluenceoverthemostplasticofRomanintellects,thegreatoratorinwhosewritingsGreekphilosophywasreclothedwithsomethingofitsancientcharm,sothatmanywhoweredebarredfromadmissiontothegrovesandporticoesofAthenshavecaughtanechoofthehighdebateswhichoncestirredtheirrecesses,astheytrodtheshadyslopesofTusculumunderhisvisionaryguidance,orfollowedhissearchingeyesoverthebluewaterstoPompeii,whilehereasonedonmindanditsobject,onsenseandknowledge,ondoubtandcertainty,withLucullusandHortensius,onthesunlightBaianshore.ItisthehistoryoftheNewAcademythatweshallnowproceedtotrace.

Thiswasthecreedprofessedby‘thegreatscientificschoolofantiquity,’andthiswasitswayofprotesting‘againstthecontemptofphysicswhichprevailed’amongtheStoics!

TheambiguitiesanduncertaintieswhichPlotinusexhibitsintheorisingontheoriginofMatter,areduenotonlytotheconflictinginfluencesofPlatoandAristotle,butalsotoanotherinfluencequitedistinctfromtheirs.ThisistheStoiccosmology.WhileutterlyrepudiatingthematerialismoftheStoics,Plotinusevidentlyfeltattractedbytheirseveremonism,andbytheconsistentmannerinwhichtheyderivedeveryformofexistencefromthedivinesubstance.TheytoorecognisedadistinctionbetweenFormandMatter,theactiveandthepassiveprincipleinNature,buttheysupposedthattheone,besidesbeingpenetratedandmouldedbytheother,hadalsobeenoriginallyproducedbyit.SuchatheorywaswellsuitedtotheenergeticandpracticalcharacterofStoicmorality,withitsaversionfrommerecontemplation,itsimmediatebearingontheconcreteinterestsoflife.Manwasconceivedasanintelligentforce,havingforhisproperfunctiontobringorderoutofchaos,‘tomakereasonandthewillofGodprevail,’andthisidealappearedtobereflectedinthedynamicconstitutionofNature.WithPlotinus,ontheotherhand,aswithAristotle,theoryandnotpracticewastheendoflife,orrather,ashehimselfexpressedit,practicewasaninferiorkindoftheorising,anendeavourtosetbeforeoneselfinoutwardformwhatshouldproperlybesoughtinthenoeticworldwheresubjectandobjectareone.490Accordingly,whileacceptingtheStoicmonism,hestrovetobringitintocloseagreementwithAristotle’scosmology,bysubstitutingcontemplationforwillasthecreativeprincipleinallexistence,nolessthanastheidealofhappinessforman.

ToexplainhowtheNouscouldbeidenticalwithanumberofdistinctideaswasadifficultproblem.WeshallhavetoshowatamoreadvancedstageofourexpositionhowPlotinusendeavouredtosolveitwiththehelpofPlato’sSophist.Intheessaywherehistheoryisfirstputforward,hecutstheknotbyassertingthateachideavirtuallycontainseveryother,whileeachinitsactualandseparateexistenceis,sotospeak,anindependentNous.Butcorrelationisnotidentity;andtosaythateachideathinksitselfisnottoexplainhowthesamesubjectcanthink,andinthinkingbeidenticalwithall.Thepersonalidentityofthethinkingsubjectstillstandsinunreconciledoppositiontothemultitudeofthoughtswhichitentertains,whethersuccessivelyorinasingleintuition.Oftwothingsone:eithertheunityoftheNousorthediversityofitsideasmustbesacrificed.Plotinusevadesthealternativebyakindofthree-cardtrick.Sometimeshisidealunityistobefoundunderthenotionofconvergencetoacommoncentre,sometimesunderthenotionofparticipationinacommonproperty,sometimesunderthenotionofmutualequivalence.

Bethisasitmay,SpinozatakesuptheAristotelianidentificationoflogicalwithdynamicalconnexion,andgivesitthewidestpossibledevelopment.FortheStagiritewouldnot,atanyrate,havedreamedofattributinganybutasubjectiveexistencetothedemonstrativeseries,norofextendingitbeyondthelimitsofouractualknowledge.Spinoza,ontheotherhand,assumesthatthewholeinfinitechainofmaterialcausesisrepresentedbyacorrespondingchainofeternalideas;andthischainhecallstheinfiniteintellectofGod.566Here,besidesthenecessitiesofsystematisation,the411influenceofmediaevalrealismisplainlyevident.For,whentheabsoluteself-existenceofPlato’sIdeashadbeensurrenderedindeferencetoAristotle’scriticism,ahomewasstillfoundforthembyPlotinusintheeternalNous,andbytheChristianSchoolmeninthemindofGod;nordidsuchabeliefpresentanydifficultiessolongasthedivinepersonalitywasrespected.ThepantheismofSpinoza,however,wasabsolute,andexcludedthenotionofanybutafinitesubjectivity.ThustheinfiniteintellectofGodisanunsupportedchainofideasrecallingthetheoryatonetimeimaginedbyPlato.567OritsexistencemaybemerelywhatAristotlewouldhavecalledpotential;inotherwords,Spinozamaymeanthatreasonswillgoonevolvingthemselvessolongaswechoosetostudythedialecticofexistence,alwaysinstrictparallelismwiththenaturalseriesofmaterialmovementsconstitutingtheexternaluniverse;andjustasthisisdeterminedthroughallitspartsbythetotalityofextension,orofallmatter(whethermovingormotionless)takentogether,soalsoatthesummitofthelogicalseriesstandstheideaofGod,fromwhosedefinitionthedemonstrationofeverylesserideanecessarilyfollows.Itistruethatinachainofconnectedenergiestheantecedent,assuch,mustbealwayspreciselyequaltotheconsequent;but,apparently,thisdifficultydidnotpresentitselftoSpinoza,norneedwebesurprisedatthis;forKant,comingacenturylater,wasstillsoimbuedwithAristoteliantraditionsas,similarly,toderivethecategoryofCauseandEffectfromtherelationbetweenReasonandConsequentinhypotheticalpropositions.568

NexttoTemperancecomesFortitude;andwithitthedifficultiesofreconcilingEpicureanismwiththeordinarymoralityareconsiderablyincreased.Theoldconceptionofthisvirtuewaswillingnesstofacepainanddeathonbehalfofanoblecause,138whichwouldbegenerallyunderstoodtomeanthesalvationoffamily,friends,andfatherland;andtheultimatesanctionofsuchself-devotionwasfoundinthepressureofpublicopinion.Idealisticphilosophy,takingstillhigherground,not69onlyrefusedtobalancethefearofpainanddeathagainstthefearofinfamyorthehopeofapplause,butaddedpublicopiniontotheconsiderationswhichagoodmaninthedischargeofhisdutywould,ifnecessary,despise.Epicurusalsoinculcateddisregardforreputation,exceptwhenitmightleadtoinconveniencesofatangibledescription;139buthehadnothingbeyondthecalculationsofself-interesttoputinitsplace.Amodernutilitarianisboundtoundergolossandsufferinginhisownpersonforthepreventionofgreaterlossandsufferingelsewhere;anegoistichedonistcannotconsistentlybebrave,exceptforthesakeofhisownfuturesecurity.ThemethodbywhichEpicurusreconciledinterestwithcouragewastominimisetheimportanceofwhateverinjuriescouldbeinflictedbyexternalcircumstances;justasinhistheoryofTemperancehehadminimisedtheimportanceofbodilypleasures.Howhedisposedofdeathwillbestbeseeninconnexionwithhisphysicalphilosophy.Painheencounteredbyemphasising,orratherimmenselyexaggerating,themind’spowerofannullingexternalsensationbyconcentratingitswholeattentiononrememberedoranticipatedpleasures,orelseonthecertaintythatpresentsufferingmustcometoanend,andtoamorespeedyendinproportiontoitsgreaterseverity.Wearetoholdafireinourhand,partlybythinkingofthefrostyCaucasus,partlybythecomfortingreflectionthatthepainofaburn,beingintense,willnotbeoflongduration;while,atworst,liketheStoics,wehavetheresourceofsuicideasalastrefugefromintolerablesuffering.140

Subjecttotheconstraintofmightylaws;

Andnow,lookingbackonhiscosmology,wecanseethatAristotlewasneversonearthetruthaswhenhetriedtobridgeoverthegulfbetweenhistwospheres,theonecorruptibleandtheothereternal,bytheideaofmotionconsideredasaspecificpropertyofallmatter,andpersistingthroughall364time;asalinkbetweenthecelestialrevolutionsandthechangesoccurringonorneartheearth’ssurface;and,finally,asthedirectcauseofheat,thegreatagentactinginoppositiontogravity—whichlastviewmayhavesuggestedBacon’scapitaldiscovery,thatheatisitselfamodeofmotion.

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  • 雨花郡主BDpsn

    Thecriticaltendencyjustalludedtosuggestsonemorereasonwhyphilosophy,fromhavingbeenamethodofdiscovery,shouldatlastbecomeameremethodofdescriptionandarrangement.Thematerialsaccumulatedbynearlythreecenturiesofobservationandreasoningweresoenormousthattheybegantostifletheimaginativefaculty.Iftherewasanyopeningfororiginalityitlayinthetaskofcarryingorderintothischaosbyreducingittoafewgeneralheads,bymappingoutthewholefieldofknowledge,andsubjectingeachparticularbranchtothenew-foundprocessesofdefinition325andclassification.Andalongwiththeincapacityforframingnewtheoriestherearoseadesiretodiminishthenumberofthosealreadyexisting,toframe,ifpossible,asystemwhichshouldselectandcombinewhateverwasgoodinanyorallofthem.

     

  • 雪灵芝VA1HE

    291

  • 如萱紫儿ZloAC

    Allexistence,accordingtoPlotinus,proceedsfromtheOne,whichhealsocallsGod.ButGoddoesnotcreatetheworldbyaconsciousexerciseofpower;for,aswehaveseen,everyformofconsciousnessisexcludedfromhisdefinition.319Neitherdoesitproceedfromhimbyemanation,forthiswouldimplyadiminutionofhissubstance.469Itisproducedbyanoverflowofhisinfinitepower.470Ourphilosophertriestoexplainanddefendthisratherunintelligiblemodeofderivationbytheanalogyofphysicalsubstancesandtheiractions.Lightisconstantlycomingfromthesunwithoutanylosstotheluminaryitself.471Andallthingsare,inlikemanner,constantlycommunicatingtheirpropervirtuetootherswhileremainingunalteredthemselves.Herewehaveagoodexampleofthecloseconnexionbetweenscienceandabstractspeculation.Peopleoftentalkasifmetaphysicswassomethingbeyondthereachofverification.Butsomemetaphysicaltheoriesadmit,atanyrate,ofdisproof,insofarastheyarefoundedonfalsephysicaltheories.HadPlotinusknownthatneitherthesunnoranythingelseinNaturecanproduceforceoutofnothing,hewould,veryprobably,havehesitatedtocredittheOnewithsuchapower.

  • 但法国M1rgD

     ThegreatestofRomanoratorsandwriterswasalsothefirstRomanthatheldopinionsofhisowninphilosophy.Howmuchoriginalthoughtoccursinhisvoluminouscontributionstotheliteratureofthesubjectismorethanwecandetermine,theGreekauthoritiesonwhichhedrewbeingknownalmostexclusivelythroughthereferencestothemcontainedinhisdisquisitions.But,judgingfromtheevidencebeforeus,carefullysiftedasithasbeenbyGermanscholars,weshouldfeeldisposedtoassignhimaforemostrankamongthethinkersofanagecertainlynotdistinguishedeitherforfertilityorfordepthofthought.Itseemsclearthathegaveanewbasistotheeclectictendenciesofhiscontemporaries,andthatthisbasiswassubsequentlyacceptedbyotherphilosopherswhosespeculativecapacityhasneverbeenquestioned.CicerodescribeshimselfasanadherentoftheNewAcademy,andexpresslyclaimstohavereasserteditsprinciplesaftertheyhadfallenintoneglectamongtheGreeks,moreparticularlyasagainsthisownoldmasterAntiochus,whoseStoicisingtheoryofcognitionheagreeswithPhiloinrepudiating.269LikePhiloalso,hebasescertaintyonthetwofoldgroundofamoralnecessityforactingonourbeliefs,270andtheexistenceofmoralintuitions,ornaturaltendenciestobelieveintheminditself;271or,perhaps,moreproperlyspeaking,onthesinglegroundofamoralsense.This,asalreadystated,wasunquestionablyareproductionofthePlatonicideasundertheirsubjectiveaspect.Butinhisgeneralviewsaboutthenatureandlimits171ofhumanknowledge,CiceroleavestheAcademybehindhim,andgoesbacktoSocrates.Perhapsnotwomenofgreatgeniuscouldbemoreunlikethanthesetwo,—forusthemostlivingfiguresinancienthistoryifnotinallhistory,—theRomanbeingasmuchatypeoftime-servingnessandvacillationastheAthenianwasofconsistencyandresoluteindependence.Yet,initsmereexternalresults,thephilosophyofSocratesisperhapsmorefaithfullyreproducedbyCicerothanbyanysubsequentenquirer;andthedifferencesbetweenthemareeasilyaccountedforbythelongintervalseparatingtheiragesfromoneanother.Eachsetoutwiththesameeagerdesiretocollectknowledgefromeveryquarter;eachsoughtaboveallthingsforthatkindofknowledgewhichseemedtobeofthegreatestpracticalimportance;andeachwasledtobelievethatthisdidnotincludespeculationsrelatingtothephysicalworld;onegreatmotivetothepartialscepticismprofessedbybothbeingtheirreconcilabledisagreementofthosewhohadattemptedanexplanationofitsmysteries.Thedeepergroundofman’signoranceinthisrespectwasstatedsomewhatdifferentlybyeach;orperhapsweshouldsaythatthesamereasonisexpressedinamythicalformbytheoneandinascientificformbytheother.Socratesheldthatthenatureofthingsisasecretwhichthegodshavereservedforthemselves;while,inCicero’sopinion,theheavensaresoremote,theinterioroftheearthsodark,themechanismofourownbodiessocomplicatedandsubtle,astobeplacedbeyondthereachoffruitfulobservation.272Nordidthisdeprivationseemanygreathardshiptoeither,since,ascitizensofgreatandfreestates,bothwerepre-eminentlyinterestedinthestudyofsociallife;anditischaracteristicoftheircommontendencythatbothshouldhavebeennotonlygreattalkersandobserversbutalsogreatreadersofancientliterature.273

  • 大笨蛋koW2M

    v

  • 扒皮成iIyai

     

  • 草莓果YgVzJ

    Such,sofarastheycanbeascertained,arethemostimportantfactsinthelifeofPlotinus.Interwovenwiththese,wefindsomelegendarydetailswhichvividlyillustratethesuperstitionandcredulityoftheage.ItisevidentfromhischildishtalkaboutthenumberssixandninethatPorphyrywasimbuedwithPythagoreanideas.Accordingly,hiswholeaccountofPlotinusisdominatedbythewishtorepresentthatphilosopherundertheguiseofaPythagoreansaint.Wehavealreadyalludedtothemannerinwhichheexaltshishero’sremarkablesagacityintoapowerofsupernaturalprescienceanddivination.Healsotellsus,withthemostunsuspectinggoodfaith,howacertainAlexandrianphilosopherwhosejealousyhadbeenexcitedbythesuccessofhisillustriouscountryman,endeavouredtodrawdownthemalignantinfluencesofthestarsontheheadofPlotinus,butwasobligedtodesistonfindingthattheattackrecoiledonhimself.421Onanotheroccasion,anEgyptianpriest,bywayofexhibitinghisskillinmagic,offeredtoconjureupthedaemonorguardianspiritofPlotinus.Thelatterreadilyconsented,andtheTempleofIsiswaschosenforthesceneoftheoperations,as,accordingtotheEgyptian,nootherspotsufficientlypureforthepurposecouldbefoundinRome.Theincantationsweredulypronounced,when,muchtotheadmirationofthosepresent,agodmadehisappearanceinsteadoftheexpecteddaemon.Bywhatparticularmarksthedivinityoftheapparitionwasdetermined,Porphyryomitstomention.Thephilosopherwascongratulatedbyhiscountrymanonthepossessionofsuchadistinguishedpatron,butthecelestialvisitorvanishedbeforeanyquestionscouldbeputtohim.Thismishapwasattributedtoafriend281‘who,eitherfromenvyorfear,chokedthebirdswhichhadbeengivenhimtohold,’andwhichseemtohaveplayedaveryimportantpartintheincantation,thoughwhatitwas,wedonotfindmoreparticularlyspecified.422

     NoonewilldenythatthelifeoftheGreekswasstainedwithfoulvices,andthattheirtheorysometimesfelltotheleveloftheirpractice.Noonewhobelievesthatmoraltruth,likealltruth,hasbeengraduallydiscovered,willwonderatthisphenomenon.Ifmoralconductisafunctionofsociallife,then,likeotherfunctions,itwillbesubject,notonlytogrowth,butalsotodiseaseanddecay.Anintenseandrapidintellectualdevelopmentmayhaveforitsconditionatotallyabnormalstateofsociety,wherecertainvices,unknowntoruderages,springupandflourishwithrankluxuriance.Whenmenhavetotakewomenalongwiththemoneverynewpathofenquiry,progresswillbeconsiderablyretarded,althoughitsbenefitswillultimatelybesharedamongagreaternumber,andwillbebetterinsuredagainstthedangerofaviolentreaction.ButtheworkthatHellaswascommissionedtoperformcouldnotwait;ithadtobeaccomplishedinafewgenerations,ornotatall.Thebarbarianswereforcingtheirwayinoneveryside,notmerelywiththeweightofinvadingarmies,butwiththedeadlierpressureofabenumbingsuperstition,withthebrute-worshipofEgyptandthedevil-worshipofPhoenicia,with57theirdeliriousorgies,theirmutilations,theircrucifixions,andtheirgladiatorialcontests.AlreadyinthelaterdramasofEuripidesandintheRhodianschoolofsculpture,weseetheawfulshadowcomingnearer,andfeelthepoisonousbreathofAsiaonourfaces.Reason,thereasonbywhichtheseterrorshavebeenforeverexorcised,couldonlyarriveatmaturityundertheinfluenceoffreeanduninterrupteddiscussioncarriedonbymenamongthemselvesinthegymnasium,theagora,theecclêsia,andthedicastery.Theresultingandinevitableseparationofthesexesbredfrightfuldisorders,whichthroughallchangesofcreedhaveclunglikeamoralpestilencetotheshoresoftheAegean,andhavehelpedtocomplicatepoliticalproblemsbyjoiningtoreligioushatredthefierceranimosityofphysicaldisgust.ButwhateverwerethecorruptionsofGreeksentiment,Greekphilosophyhadthepowertopurgethemaway.‘Follownature’becamethewatchwordofoneschoolafteranother;andapreceptwhichatfirstmayhavemeantonlythatmanshouldnotfallbelowthebrutes,wasfinallysointerpretedastoimplyanabsolutecontrolofsensebyreason.NoloftierstandardofsexualpurityhaseverbeeninculcatedthanthatfixedbyPlatoinhislatestwork,theLaws.Isocratesbidshusbandssetanexampleofconjugalfidelitytotheirwives.Socrateshadalreadydeclaredthatvirtuewasthesameforbothsexes.Xenophoninterestshimselfintheeducationofwomen.Platowouldgivethemthesametraining,andeverywhereassociatetheminthesamefunctionswithmen.Equallydecisiveevidenceofatheoreticaloppositiontoslaveryisnotforthcoming,andweknowthatitwasunfortunatelysanctionedbyPlatoandAristotle,inthisrespectnobetterinspiredthantheearlyChristians;nevertheless,thegermofsuchanoppositionexisted,andwillhereafterbepointedout.

  • 绿卡纸Fdizu

    SimpliciuscontinuedtowritecommentariesonAristotle362afterhisreturn,andwasevensucceededbyayoungergenerationofPlatonicexpositors;butbeforetheendofthesixthcenturypaganismwasextinct,andNeo-Platonism,asaseparateschoolofphilosophy,shareditsfate.Itwillbetheobjectofournextandconcludingchaptertoshowthatthedisappearanceoftheoldreligionandtheoldmethodsofteachingdidnotinvolveanyrealbreakinthecontinuityofthought,andthatmodernspeculationhasbeen,throughthegreaterpartofitshistory,areproductionofGreekideasinnewcombinationsandunderalterednames.

     

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