[海峡两岸]民进党操作疫情暴露“台独”野心

4QmBj-news 发布时间: 2020-07-11 10:25:05

“飞艇前5平台”

Bytrueconvictionintoexiledriven;

Theothergreatethicalmethodoftheeighteenthcentury,itshedonism,wascloselyconnectedwiththescepticalmovementinspeculativephilosophy,and,likethat,receivedanentirelynewsignificancebybecomingassociatedwiththeideaoflaw.Thosewhoisolatemanfromtheuniversearenecessarilyledtoseekinhisinterestsassuchthesoleregulatorofhisactions,andtheirsolesanctionintheopinionofhisfellows.Protagoraswentalreadysofar,notwithstandinghisunwillingnesstorecognisepleasureasthesupremeend;andinthesystemofhistruesuccessor,Aristippus,themostextremehedonismgoeshandinhandwiththemostextremeidealism;whilewithEpicurus,again,botharetemperedbytheinfluenceofnaturalism,imposingonhimitsconceptionsofobjectivelawalikeinscienceandinpractice.Stillhissystemleanedheavilytothesideofself-gratificationpureandsimple;anditwasreservedformodernthoughttoestablishacompleteequilibriumbetweenthetwocompetingtendenciesofGreekethics.ThishasbeeneffectedinUtilitarianism;andthosecriticsareentirelymistakenwho,likeM.Guyau,regardthatsystemasamerereproductionofEpicureanism.ItmightwithfullasmuchreasonbecalledamodernversionofStoicism.TheideaofhumanityisessentiallyStoic;toworkforthegoodofhumanitywasa424Stoicprecept;andtosacrificeone’sownpleasureforthathighergoodisavirtuewhichwouldhavesatisfiedthemostrigorousdemandsofaCleanthes,anEpictêtus,oranAurelius.PlotinusseemstohavebegunhiscareerasapublicteachersoonaftertakinguphisresidenceinRome.Hislecturesatfirstassumedtheformofconversationswithhisprivatefriends.ApparentlybywayofrevivingthetraditionsofSocratesandPlato,heencouragedthemtotakeanactivepartinthediscussion:buteitherhedidnotpossesstheauthorityofhisgreatexemplars,ortherulesofGreekdialoguewerenotverystrictlyobservedinRome;forwelearnfromthereportofaneye-witnessthatinterruptionswerefartoofrequent,andthatavastamountofnonsensewastalked.408Afterwardsamoreregularsystemoflecturingwasestablished,andpaperswerereadaloudbythosewhohadanyobservationstooffer,asinourownphilosophicalsocieties.

TheanalogybetweenThoughtandExtensionunderthetwoaspectsofnecessaryconnexionandmerecontingentrelationinco-existenceorsuccession,was,intruth,moreinterestingtoitsauthorasabasisforhisethicalthanasadevelopmentofhismetaphysicalspeculations.Thetwoordersofrelationsrepresent,intheirdistinction,theoppositionofsciencetoopinionorimagination,theoppositionofdutifulconvictiontoblindorselfishimpulse.SpinozaborrowsfromtheStoicstheiridentificationofvolitionwithbelief;butinworkingouttheconsequencesofthisprincipleitisofPlatoratherthanoftheStoicsthatheremindsus.Thepassionsareinhissystemwhatsense,imagination,andopinionwereinthatoftheAthenianidealist;andhisethicsmayalmostbecalledthemetaphysicsoftheRepublicturnedoutsidein.Joy,griefanddesirearemoreorlessimperfectperceptionsofreality—arealitynotbelongingtotheexternalworldbuttotheconscioussubjectitself.571WhenSpinozatracesthemtoaconsciousnessorexpectationofraisedorloweredpower,werecognisetheinfluenceofHobbes;butwhen,hereaselsewhere,heidentifiespowerwithexistence,wedetectareturntoGreekformsofthought.Thegreatconflictbetweenillusionandrealityisfoughtoutoncemore;only,thistime,itisaboutourownessencethatwearefirstdeceivedandthenenlightened.Ifthenatureandoriginofoutwardthingsarehalfrevealed,halfconcealedbysenseandimagination,ouremotionsareinlikemannertheobscuringanddistortingmediumthroughwhichweapprehendourinmostselves,andwhateveraddstoortakesawayfromtheplenitudeofourexistence;andwhatscienceistotheone,moralityandreligionaretotheother.

Aristotle’sworkonreproductionissupposedbymanytocontainareferencetohisdistinctionbetweenthetwoReasons,butweareconvincedthatthisisamistake.Whatwearetoldisthatattheveryfirstformationofanewbeing,thevegetativesoul,beinganexclusivelycorporealfunction,isprecontainedintheelementsfurnishedbythefemale;thatthesensitivesouliscontributedbythemale(being,apparently,engenderedinthesemenbythevitalheatoftheparentorganism);and,finally,thattherationalsoul,althoughentirelyimmaterial,isalsocarriedinwiththesemen,intowhichithasfirstbeenintroducedfromwithout,butwhere,orwhen,orhowisnotmoreparticularlyspecified.260Butevenwerethegenetictheoryinquestionperfectlyclearedup,itwouldstillthrownolightonthedistinctionbetweenactiveandpassivereason,asthelatteralonecanbeunderstoodbytherationalsoultowhichitrefers.Forweareexpresslyinformed—whatindeedhardlyrequiredtobestated—thattheembryonicsoulsexistnotinactbutinpotency.261Itseems,therefore,thatMr.EdwinWallaceisdoublymistakenwhenhequotesasentencefromthispassageinjustificationofhisstatement,that‘Aristotlewouldseemalmosttoidentify’thecreativereason‘withGodastheeternalandomnipresentthinker;’262first,becauseitdoesnotrefertothecreativeNousatall;and,secondly,because,ifitdid,thewordswouldnotstandthemeaningwhichheputsuponthem.263

Agreeinginthesound,notinthesense.

Theimmortalityofthesoulisasubjectonwhichidealisticphilosophershabituallyexpressthemselvesintermsofapparentlystudiedambiguity,andthisisespeciallytrueofPlotinus.Here,aselsewhere,herepeatstheopinionsandargumentsofPlato,butwithcertaindevelopmentswhichmakehisadhesiontothepopularbeliefinapersonaldurationafterdeathconsiderablymoredoubtfulthanwasthatofhismaster.OnegreatdifficultyinthewayofPlato’sdoctrine,ascommonlyunderstood,isthatitattributesapermanencetoindividuals,which,ontheprinciplesofhissystem,shouldbelongonlytogeneralideas.Now,atfirstsight,Plotinusseemstoevadethisdifficultybyadmittingeverlastingideasofindividualsnolessthanofgenerictypes.514Acloserexamination,however,showsthatthisviewisevenmoreunfavourablethanPlato’stothehopeofpersonalimmortality.Foreitherourrealselfisindependentofourempiricalconsciousness,whichisjustwhatwewishtohavepreserved,or,asseemsmoreprobable,theeternalexistencewhichitenjoysisofanaltogetheridealcharacter,likethatwhichSpinozaalsoattributedtothe346humansoul,andwhich,inhisphilosophy,certainlyhadnothingtodowithaprolongationofindividualconsciousnessbeyondthegrave.AsMadamedeSta?lobservesofasimilarviewheldatonetimebySchelling,‘cetteimmortalité-làressembleterriblementàlamort.’Andwhen,inadditiontohisowntheoryofindividualideas,wefindPlotinusadoptingthetheoryoftheStoics,thatthewholecourseofmundaneaffairsperiodicallyreturnstoitsstarting-pointandisrepeatedinthesameorderasbefore,515wecannothelpconcludingthathumanimmortalityinthepopularsensemusthaveseemedasimpossibletohimasitdidtothem.Wemust,therefore,supposethatthedoctrineofmetempsychosisandfutureretributionswhichheunquestionablyprofesses,appliesonlytocertaindeterminatecyclesofpsychiclife;orthatitwastohim,whatithadprobablybeentoPlato,onlyafigurativewayofexpressingtheessentialunityofallsouls,andthetranscendentcharacterofethicaldistinctions.516

WehaveseenhowPlotinusestablishesthespiritualisticbasisofhisphilosophy.Wehavenowtoseehowheworksoutfromitinalldirections,developingtheresultsofhispreviousenquiriesintoacompletemetaphysicalsystem.Itwillhavebeenobservedthatthewholemethodofreasoningby302whichmaterialismwasoverthrown,restedontheantithesisbetweentheunityofconsciousnessandthedivisibilityofcorporealsubstance.VerymuchthesamemethodwasafterwardsemployedbyCartesianismtodemonstratethesameconclusion.ButwithDescartesandhisfollowers,theoppositionbetweensoulandbodywasabsolute,theformerbeingdefinedaspurethought,thelatteraspureextension.Hencetheextremedifficultywhichtheyexperiencedinaccountingfortheevidentconnexionbetweenthetwo.ThespiritualismofPlotinusdidnotinvolveanysuchimpassablechasmbetweenconsciousnessanditsobject.Accordingtohim,althoughthesouliscontainedinordependsonanabsolutelyself-identicalunity,sheisnotherselfthatunity,butinsomedegreesharesthecharactersofdivisibilityandextension.447Ifweconceiveallexistenceasboundedateitherextremitybytwoprinciples,theoneextendedandtheotherinextended,thensoulwillstillstandmidwaybetweenthem;notdividedinherself,butdividedinrespecttothebodieswhichsheanimates.Plotinusholdsthatsuchanassumptionisnecessitatedbythefactsofsensation.Afeelingofpain,forexample,islocatedinaparticularpointofthebody,andis,atthesametime,apprehendedasmyfeeling,notassomeoneelse’s.AsimilarsynthesisobtainsthroughthewholeofNature.Thevisibleuniverseconsistsofmanyheterogeneousparts,heldtogetherbyasingleanimatingprinciple.Andwecantracethesamequalitiesandfiguresthroughamultitudeofconcreteindividuals,theiressentialunityremainingunbroken,notwithstandingthedispersionoftheobjectsinwhichtheyinhere.

TheStoicsheld,asMr.HerbertSpencer,whoresemblestheminsomanyrespects,nowholds,thatallknowledgeisultimatelyproducedbytheactionoftheobjectonthesubject.Beingconvinced,however,thateachsingleperception,assuch,isfallible,theysoughtforthecriterionofcertaintyintherepetitionandcombinationofindividualimpressions;and,againlikeMr.Spencer,butalsoincompleteaccordancewiththeirdynamictheoryofNature,theyestimatedthevalidityofabeliefbythedegreeoftenacitywithwhichitisheld.Thevariousstagesofassurancewerecarefullydistinguishedandarrangedinanascendingseries.Firstcamesimpleperception,thensimpleassent,thirdly,comprehension,andfinallydemonstrativescience.Thesementalactswererespectivelytypifiedbyextendingtheforefinger,bybendingitasinthegestureofbeckoning,byclenchingthefist,andbyplacingit,thusclenched,inthegraspoftheotherhand.Fromanotherpointofview,theydefinedatrueconvictionasthatwhichcanonlybeproducedbytheactionofacorrespondingrealobjectonthemind.147ThistheorywascomplicatedstillfurtherbytheStoicinterpretationofjudgmentasavoluntaryact;bytheethicalsignificancewhichitconsequentlyreceived;andbytheconcentrationofallwisdominthepersonofanidealsage.Theunreservedbestowalofbeliefisapracticalpostulatedictatedbythenecessitiesoflife;butonlyhewhoknowswhatthosenecessitiesare,inotherwordsonlythewiseman,knowswhenthepostulateistobeenforced.Inshort,thecriterionofyourbeingrightisyourconvictionthatyouareright,andthisconviction,ifyoureallypossessit,isasufficientwitnesstoitsownveracity.Oragain,itisthenatureofmantoactrightly,andhecannotdosounlesshehasrightbeliefs,confirmedandclinchedbytheconsciousnessthattheyareright.

OnpassingfromSenecatoEpictêtus,wefindthatthereligiouselementhasreceivedaconsiderableaccessionofstrength,soconsiderable,indeed,thatthesimpleprogressoftimewillnotaltogetheraccountforit.SomethingisduetothesuperiordevoutnessoftheEasternmind—EpictêtuswasaPhrygian,—andstillmoretothedifferenceinstationbetweenthetwophilosophers.Asanoble,Senecabelongedtotheclasswhichwasnaturallymostinclinedtoadoptanindependentattitudetowardsthepopularbeliefs;asaslave,Epictêtusbelongedtotheclasswhichwasnaturallymostamenabletotheirauthority.Itwas,however,noaccidentthatphilosophyshould,atadistanceofonlyageneration,berepresentedbytwosuchwidelycontrastedindividuals;forthewholetendencyofRomancivilisationwas,aswehaveseen,tobringtheOrientalelementandtheservileelementofsocietyintoever-increasingprominence.NothingprovestheascendencyofreligiousconsiderationsinthemindofEpictêtusmorestronglythanhisaversionfromthephysicalenquirieswhichwereeagerlyprosecutedbySeneca.Natureinterestshimsolelyasamanifestationofdivinewisdomandgoodness.Asaconsequenceofthisintensifiedreligiousfeeling,theStoictheoryofnaturallawistransformed,withEpictêtus,intoanexpressionoffilialsubmissiontothedivinewill,whiletheStoicteleologybecomesanenumerationoftheblessingsshoweredbyprovidenceonman.Inthelatterrespect,hisstandpointapproachesveryneartothatofSocrates,who,althoughafree-bornAtheniancitizen,belonged,likehim,tothepoorerclasses,andsympathiseddeeplywiththeirfeelingofdependenceonsupernaturalprotection,—aremarkwhichalsoappliestothehumbleday-labourer244Cleanthes.Epictêtusalsosharestheidea,characteristicofthePlatonicratherthanoftheXenophonticSocrates,thatthephilosopherisentrustedwithamissionfromGod,withoutwhichitwouldbeperilousforhimtoundertaketheofficeofateacher,andwhich,inthedischargeofthatoffice,heshouldkeepconstantlybeforehiseyes.ButthedialecticalelementwhichwithSocrateshadfurnishedsostrongacounterpoisetotheauthoritativeandtraditionalsideofhisphilosophy,isalmostentirelywantinginthediscoursesofhisimitator,andthelittleofitwhichheadmitsisvaluedonlyasameansofsilencingtheSceptics.Ontheotherhand,theweaknessandinsignificanceofhumannature,consideredontheindividualside,areabundantlyillustrated,andcontemptuousdiminutivesarehabituallyusedinspeakingofitscomponentparts.378ItwouldseemthattheattitudeofprostrationbeforeanoverwhelmingexternalauthoritypreventedEpictêtusfromlookingveryfavourablyonthedoctrineofindividualimmortality;andevenifheacceptedthatdoctrine,whichseemsinthehighestdegreeimprobable,itheldamuchlessimportantplaceinhisthoughtsthaninthoseofCiceroandSeneca.Itwouldseem,also,thattheStoicmaterialismwasbetrayingitsfundamentalincompatibilitywithahopeoriginallyborrowedfromtheidealismofPlato.Norwasthisrenunciationinconsistentwiththeethicaldualismwhichdrewasharplineofdistinctionbetweenfleshandspiritintheconstitutionofman,forthesuperiorityofthespiritarosefromitsidentitywiththedivinesubstanceintowhichitwasdestinedtobereabsorbedafterdeath.379

V.

Characters,then,arenotintroducedthattheymayperformactions;butactionsarerepresentedforthesakeofthecharacterswhodothem,orwhosufferbythem.ItisnotsomuchaghostlyapparitionoramurderwhichinterestsusasthefactthattheghostappearstoHamlet,andthatthemurder303iscommittedbyMacbeth.AndthesameistrueoftheGreekdrama,thoughnotperhapstothesameextent.WemaycareforOedipuschieflyonaccountofhisadventures;butwecarefarmoreforwhatPrometheusorClytemnestra,AntigoneorAjax,sayaboutthemselvesthanforwhattheysufferorwhattheydo.Thus,andthusonly,areweenabledtounderstandthetragicelementinpoetry,theproductionofpleasurebythespectacleofpain.Itisnotthesatisfactioncausedbyseeingaskilfulimitationofreality,forfewhavewitnessedsuchawfuleventsinreallifeasonthestage;norisitpain,assuch,whichinterestsus,forthescenesoftortureexhibitedinsomeSpanishandBolognesepaintingsdonotgratify,theyrevoltanddisgustaneducatedtaste.Thetruetragicemotionisproduced,notbythesufferingitself,butbythereactionofthecharactersagainstit;forthisgives,morethananythingelse,theideaofaforcewithwhichwecansynergise,becauseitispurelymental;orbythehelplesssubmissionofthevictimswhomwewishtoassistbecausetheyarelovable,andwhomwelovestillmorefromourinabilitytoassistthem,throughthetransformationofarrestedactionintofeeling,accompaniedbytheenjoymentpropertotenderemotion.Hencethepeculiarimportanceofthefemalepartsindramaticpoetry.Aristotletellsusthatitisbadarttorepresentwomenasnoblerandbraverthanmen,becausetheyarenotsoinreality.185Nevertheless,heshouldhavenoticedthatonthetragicstageofAthenswomenfirstcompetedwithmen,thenequalled,andfinallyfarsurpassedtheminloftinessofcharacter.186Butwithhisphilosophyhecouldnotseethat,ifheroinesdidnotexist,itwouldbenecessarytocreatethem.For,ifwomenareconceivedasreactingagainstoutwardcircumstancesatall,theirveryhelplessnesswillleadtothe304storingofagreatermentaltensionintheshapeofexcitedthoughtandfeelingdebarredfromanymanifestationexceptinwords;anditisexactlywiththismentaltensionthatthespectatorcanmosteasilysynergise.ThewrathofOrestesisnotinteresting,becauseitisentirelyabsorbedintothepremeditationandexecutionofhisvengeance.ThepassionofElectraisprofoundlyinteresting,becauseithasnooutletbutimpotentdenunciationsofheroppressors,andabortiveschemesforherdeliverancefromtheiryoke.Hence,also,Shakspeareproducessomeofhisgreatesteffectsbyplacinghismalecharacters,tosomeextent,inthepositionofwomen,eitherthroughtheirnaturalweaknessandindecision,aswithHamlet,andBrutus,andMacbeth,orthroughtheparalysisofunprovedsuspicion,aswithOthello;whilethegreatestofallhisheroines,LadyMacbeth,issobecauseshehastheintellectandwilltoframeresolutionsofdauntlessambition,andeloquencetoforcethemonherhusband,withouteitherthephysicalorthemoralforcetoexecutethemherself.Inallthesecasesitisthearrestofanelectriccurrentwhichproducesthemostintenseheat,orthemostbrilliantillumination.Again,bytheirextremesensitiveness,andbythenaturaldesirefelttohelpthem,womenexcitemorepity,which,aswehavesaid,meansmorelove,thanmen;andthisinthehighestdegreewhentheirsufferingsareundeserved.Wesee,then,howwideAristotlewentofthemarkwhenhemadeitarulethatthesufferingsoftragiccharactersshouldbepartlybroughtonbytheirownfault,andthat,speakinggenerally,theyshouldnotbedistinguishedforjusticeorvirtue,noryetforextremewickedness.187The‘immoderatemoderation’oftheStagiritewasnevermoreinfelicitouslyexhibited.For,inordertoproducetrulytragiceffects,excessofeverykindnotonlymay,butmust,beemployed.Itisbythereactionofheroicfortitude,eitheragainstunmeritedoutrage,oragainstthewholepressureofsociallaw,thatoursynergeticinterestiswoundup305totheintensestpitch.Itiswhenweseeabeautifulsoulrequitedwithevilforgoodthatoureyesarefilledwiththenoblesttears.Yetsoabsolutelypervertedhavemen’smindsbeenbytheAristoteliandictumthatGervinus,thegreatShakspeariancritic,actuallytriestoprovethatDuncan,tosomeextent,deservedhisfatebyimprudentlytrustinghimselftothehospitalityofMacbeth;thatDesdemonawasveryimprudentinintercedingforCassio;andthatitwastreasonableforCordeliatobringaFrencharmyintoEngland!TheGreekdramamighthavesuppliedAristotlewithseveraldecisivecontradictionsofhiscanons.HeshouldhaveseenthatthePrometheus,theAntigone,andtheHippolytusareaffectinginproportiontothepre-eminentvirtueoftheirprotagonists.Thefurtherfallacyofexcludingveryguiltycharactersis,ofcourse,mostdecisivelyrefutedbyShakspeare,whoseRichardIII.,whoseIago,andwhoseMacbethexcitekeeninterestbytheirassociationofextraordinaryvillainywithextraordinaryintellectualgifts.

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  • 雨花郡主z0dAN

    AfteritstemporaryadoptionbytheAcademy,Pythagoreanismhadceasedtoexistasanindependentsystem,butcontinuedtoleadasortofundergroundlifeinconnexionwiththeOrphicandDionysiacmysteries.Whenorwhereitreappearedunderaphilosophicalformcannotbecertainlydetermined.ZellerfixesonthebeginningofthefirstcenturyB.C.asthemostprobabledate,andonAlexandriaasthemostprobablesceneofitsrenewedspeculativeactivity.385Somefiftyyearslater,wefindPythagoreanteachersinRome,andtracesoftheirinfluenceareplainlydiscernibleintheAugustanliterature.Underitsearliestform,thenewsystemwasanattempttocombinemathematicalmysticismwithprinciplesborrowedfromtheStoicandotherphilosophies;orperhapsitwassimplyareturntothepoeticalsyncretismofEmpedocles.Althoughcomposedoffireandair,thesoulisdeclaredtobeimmortal;andlessonsofholinessareaccompaniedbyanelaboratecodeofrulesforceremonialpurification.TheelderSextius,fromwhomSenecaderivedmuchofhisethicalenthusiasm,probablybelongedtothisschool.HetaughtamoralityapparentlyidenticalwiththatofStoicismineverypointexcepttheinculcationofabstinencefromanimalfood.386Tothismightbeaddedthepracticeofnightlyself-confession—anexaminationfromthemoralpointofviewofhowone’swholedayhasbeenspent,—werewecertainthattheStoicsdidnotoriginateitforthemselves.387

     Therulesfordistinguishingbetweentruthandfalsehood98aregiveninthefamousEpicureanCanon.Onreceivinganimageintothemind,weassociateitwithsimilarimagesformerlyimpressedonusbysomerealobject.Iftheassociationoranticipation(πρ?ληψι?)isconfirmedornotcontradictedbysubsequentexperience,itistrue;false,ifcontradictedornotconfirmed.187Thestresslaidonabsenceofcontradictoryevidenceillustratesthegreatpartplayedbysuchnotionsaspossibility,negation,andfreedomintheEpicureansystem.Inethicsthisclassofconceptionsisrepresentedbypainlessness,conceivedfirstasthecondition,andfinallyastheessenceofhappiness;inphysicsbytheinfinitevoid,theinaneprofundumofwhichLucretiusspeakswithalmostreligiousunction;andinlogicbytheabsenceofcontradictionconsideredasaproofofreality.Here,perhaps,wemaydetecttheParmenideanabsoluteunderanewform;only,byacuriousreversal,whatParmenideshimselfstrovealtogethertoexpelfromthoughthasbecomeitssupremeobjectandcontent.188

  • 雪灵芝1gpih

  • 如萱紫儿XCT5l

  • 但法国aMb7x

    XI.

     

  • 大笨蛋1CuVm

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  • 扒皮成FXBdB

     

  • 草莓果yAXj0

    In347Platodied,leavinghisnephewSpeusippustosucceedhimintheheadshipoftheAcademy.AristotlethenleftAthens,accompaniedbyanotherPlatonist,Xenocrates,acircumstancetendingtoprovethathisrelationswiththeschoolcontinuedtobeofacordialcharacter.ThetwosettledinAtarneus,attheinvitationofitstyrantHermeias,anoldfellow-studentfromtheAcademy.Hermeiaswasaeunuchwhohadrisenfromthepositionofaslavetothatofvizier,andthen,afterhismaster’sdeath,tothepossessionofsupremepower.Threeyearssubsequentlyastillmoreabruptturnoffortunebroughthisadventurouscareertoaclose.LikePolycrates,hewastreacherouslyseizedandcrucifiedbyorderofthePersianGovernment.Aristotle,whohadmarriedPythias,hisdeceasedpatron’sniece,fledwithhertoMitylênê.Alwaysgrateful,andsingularlyenthusiasticinhisattachments,hecelebratedthememoryofHermeiasinamannerwhichgavegreatoffencetothereligioussentimentofHellas,bydedicatingastatuetohimatDelphi,andcomposinganelegy,stillextant,inwhichhecomparestheeunuch-despottoHeracles,theDioscuri,Achilles,andAjax;andpromiseshimimmortalityfromtheMusesinhonourofXenianZeus.

     Tocompleteourenumerationoftheforcesbywhichanewpublicopinionwasbeingcreated,wemustmentiontheslaves.Thoughstillliabletobetreatedwithgreatbarbarity,211theconditionofthisclasswasconsiderablyamelioratedundertheempire.Theirlivesand,inthecaseofwomen,theirchastity,wereprotectedbylaw;theywereallowedbycustomtoaccumulateproperty;theyhadalwaysthehopeoflibertybeforetheireyes,foremancipationswerefrequentandwereencouragedbythenewlegislation;theyoftenlivedontermsoftheclosestintimacywiththeirmasters,andweresometimeseducatedenoughtoconversewiththemonsubjectsofgeneralinterest.Nowaservileconditionismorefavourablethananyothertoreligiousideas.Itinculcateshabitsofunquestioningsubmissiontoauthority;andbythemiserieswithwhichitisattendedimmenselyenhancesthevalueofconsolatorybeliefs,whethertheytaketheformoffaithindivineprotectionduringthislife,orofacompensationforitsafflictionsinthenext.Moreover,agreatmajorityoftheRomanslavescamefromthoseEasterncountrieswhichwerethenativelandofsuperstition,andthusservedasmissionariesofOrientalcultsandcreedsintheWest,besidesfurnishingaptdisciplestotheteacherswhocamefromAsiawiththeexpressobjectofsecuringconvertstotheirreligioninRome.ThepartplayedbyslavesinthediffusionofChristianityiswellknown;whatwehavetoobserveatpresentisthattheirinfluencemustequallyhavetoldinfavourofeveryothersupernaturalistbelief,and,tothesameextent,againsttherationalismofwriterslikeHoraceandLucian.

  • 绿卡纸3PuPt

     ItisonlyasareligiousphilosophythatNeo-Pythagoreanismcaninterestushere.Consideredinthislight,theprinciplesofitsadherentsmaybesummedupundertwoheads.First,theytaughttheseparateexistenceofspiritasopposedtomatter.UnliketheStoics,theydistinguishedbetweenGodandNature,althoughtheywerenotagreedastowhethertheirSupremeBeingtranscendedtheworldorwasimmanentinit.This,however,didnotinterferewiththeirfundamentalcontention,foreitheralternativeisconsistentwithhisabsoluteimmateriality.Inlikemanner,thehumansoulisabsolutelyindependentofthebodywhichitanimates;ithasexistedandwillcontinuetoexistforever.Thewholeobjectofethics,orratherofreligion,istoenforceandillustratethisindependence,topreventthesoulfrombecomingattachedtoitsprison-housebyindulgenceinsensualpleasures,toguarditshabitationagainstdefilingcontactwiththemoreoffensiveformsofmaterialimpurity.Hencetheirrecommendationofabstinencefromwine,fromanimalfood,andfrommarriage,theirprovisionsforpersonalcleanliness,theiruseoflineninsteadofwoollengarments,undertheideathatavegetableispurerthanananimaltissue.ThesecondarticleofthePythagoreancreedisthatspirit,beingsuperiortomatter,hasthepowerofinterferingwithandcontrollingitsmovements,that,beingabovespaceandtime,itcanbemademanifestwithoutanyregardtotheconditionswhichtheyordinarilyimpose.Towhatanextentthisbeliefwascarried,isshownbythestoriestoldofPythagoras,thesupposedfounderoftheschool,andApolloniusofTyana,itsstillgreaterrepresentativeinthefirstcenturyofourera.Bothwerecreditedwithanextraordinarypowerofworkingmiraclesandofpredictingfutureevents;but,contrarytotheusualcustomofmythologers,alargermeasureofthispowerwasascribedtotheonewholivedinamoreadvancedstageofcivilisation,andthecompositionofwhosebiographywasseparatedbya250comparativelyshortintervalfromtheeventswhichitprofessestorelate.389

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