淄博市临淄区辛店街道打造解锁老旧小区防疫难题的"金钥匙"

GSBd8-news 发布时间: 2020-07-12 01:13:54

“【ms47Z】飞艇规律大全”

366

GnosticpessimismmarkstheextremepointofaberrationtowhichGreekthoughtwasdrawnbytheattractionofOrientalsuperstition.Howitwasrescuedfromdestructionbyanewsystematisationofitsancientmethodsandresultswillbeexplainedinanotherchapter.Notonlyoratoryandliterature,butphilosophyandsciencewerecultivatedwithrenewedvigour.Thelinebetweenphilosophyandsophisticismwasnot,indeed,verydistinctlydrawn.EpictêtusseverelycensuresthemoralteachersofhistimeforornamentingtheirlectureswithclaptraprhetoricaboutthebattleofThermopylaeorflowerydescriptionsofPanandtheNymphs.406Andtheprofesseddeclaimerssimilarlydrewonastoreofphilosophicalcommonplaces.Thissortofpopulartreatmentledtothecultivationofethicsandtheologyinpreferencetologicandmetaphysics,andtoaneclecticblendingofthechiefsystemswithoneanother.AseverermethodwasinculcatedintheschoolsofAthens,especiallyaftertheendowmentoftheirprofessorsbyMarcusAurelius;but,inpractice,thiscametomeanwhatitmeansinmodernuniversities,thesubstitutionofphilologyforindependentenquiry.ThequestionwasnotsomuchwhatistrueaswhatdidPlatoorAristotlereallythink.AlexandrianscienceshowedsomethingofthesamelearnedandtraditionalcharacterintheworksofPtolemy;butthegreatnameofGalenmarksarealprogressinphysiology,aswellasareturntotheprinciplesofHippocrates.

73

Again,whileattackingthebeliefinhumanimmortality,EpicurusseemstodirecthisblowsagainstthemetaphysicalreasoningsofPlato,153aswellasagainsttheindistinctforebod77ingsofprimitiveimagination.Theconsequencesofthistwo-edgedpolemicareveryremarkable.InreadingLucretius,wearesurprisedatthetotalabsenceofcriticismslikethosebroughttobearonGreekmythologywithsuchformidableeffect,firstbyPlatoand,longafterwards,byLucian.Thereisamuchmoremoderntoneabouthisinvectives,andtheyseemaimedatanenemyfamiliartoourselves.OnewouldsupposethattheadventofCatholicismhadbeenrevealedinapropheticvisiontothepoet,andthatthis,ratherthanthereligionofhisowntimes,wastheobjectofhiswrathanddread;orelsethatsomechildoftheRenaissancewasseekingforafreerutteranceofhisownrevoltagainstalltheology,underthedisguiseofadeadlanguageandofawarfarewithlong-discreditedgods.Forthisreason,Christianshavealwaysregardedhim,withperfectjustice,asadangerousenemy;whilerationalistsofthefiercertypehaveacceptedhissplendiddenunciationsastheappropriateexpressionoftheirownmostcherishedfeelings.

NorisitonlythepersonalityofSocratesthathasbeensovariouslyconceived;hisphilosophy,sofarasitcanbeseparatedfromhislife,hasequallygivenoccasiontoconflictinginterpretations,andithasevenbeendeniedthathehad,properlyspeaking,anyphilosophyatall.Thesedivergentpresentationsofhisteaching,ifteachingitcanbecalled,beginwiththetwodisciplestowhomourknowledgeofitisalmostentirelydue.Thereis,curiouslyenough,muchthesameinnerdiscrepancybetweenXenophon’sMemorabiliaandthose111PlatonicdialogueswhereSocratesistheprincipalspokesman,asthatwhichdistinguishestheSynopticfromtheJohannineGospels.Theonegivesusareportcertainlyauthentic,butprobablyincomplete;theotheraccountis,beyondalldoubt,ahighlyidealisedportraiture,butseemstocontainsometraitsdirectlycopiedfromtheoriginal,whichmaywellhaveescapedalessphilosophicalobserverthanPlato.Aristotlealsofurnishesuswithsomescantynoticeswhichareofuseindecidingbetweenthetworivalversions,althoughwecannotbesurethathehadaccesstoanybettersourcesofinformationthanareopentoourselves.ByvariouslycombiningandreasoningfromthesedatamoderncriticshaveproducedathirdSocrates,whoisoftenlittlemorethantheembodimentoftheirownfavouriteopinions.

Yetifteleologywas,insomerespects,afalling-offfromtherigidmechanicismfirsttaughtbythepre-SocraticschoolsandthenagainbytheCartesianschool,inatleastonerespectitmarkedacomparativeprogress.Forthefirstattemptsmadebothbyancientandmodernphilosophytoexplainvitalphenomenaonpurelymechanicalprincipleswerealtogetherpremature;andtheimmenseextensionofbiologicalknowledgewhichtookplacesubsequentlytoboth,couldnotbutbringaboutanirresistiblemovementintheoppositedirection.ThefirsttoreviveteleologywasLeibniz,whofurnishedatransitionfromtheseventeenthtotheeighteenthcenturybyhismonadology.Inthis,AtomismiscombinedwithAristotelianideas,justasithadpreviouslybeencombinedwithPlatonicideasbyDescartes.Themovementoftheatomsisexplainedbytheiraspirationafteramoreperfectstateinsteadofbymechanicalpressure.ButwhileLeibnizstillrelieson423theontologicalargumentofDescartestoprovetheexistenceofGod,thiswassoonabandoned,alongwiththecosmologicalargument,fortheargumentfromdesign,whichwasalsothatusedbytheStoics;whileinethicsthefitnessofthingswassubstitutedforthemoremechanicallawofself-preservation,astheruleofconduct;andthesubjectionofallimpulsetoreasonwasreplacedbythemilderprincipleofacontrolexercisedbythebenevolentoverthemalevolentinstincts.ThiswasaverydistinctdeparturefromtheStoicmethod,yetthosewhomadeitweremorefaithfultoteleologythanStoicismhadbeen;fortocondemnhumanfeelingaltogetherwasimplicitlytocondemntheworkofNatureorofGod.

NowitwasbythissideofPlatonismthatAristotlealsohadbeenmostdeeplyfascinated.Whileconstantlycriticisingtheidealtheory,hehad,intruth,accepteditunderamodifiedform.Hisuniversalclassificationisderivedfromthedialecticmethod.Hispsychologyandtheologyareconstructedon287thespiritualisticbasisoftheAcademy,andoutofmaterialswhichthefounderoftheAcademyhadsupplied.ItwasthereforenaturalthatPlotinusshouldavailhimselflargelyoftheStagirite’shelpinendeavouringtoreproducewhatatraditionofsixcenturieshadobscuredorconfused.ToreconcilethetwoAtticmasterswas,asweknow,acommonschoolexercise.Learnedcommentatorshad,indeed,placedtheirdisagreementbeyondalldispute.Butthereremainedthesimplercourseofbringingtheircommonstandpointintogreaterprominence,andcombiningtheirtheorieswherethisseemedpossiblewithouttooopenlyrenouncingtherespectduetowhatalmostallconsideredthesuperiorauthorityofPlato.TowhichofthetwomastersNeo-PlatonismreallyowedmostisaquestionthatmustbepostponeduntilwehavemadeourselvesacquaintedwiththeoutlinesofthesystemastheyappearintheworksofPlotinus.

Ifruthlessheartscouldclaimherfellowship.’56

文章推荐:

纪念五四运动 湖北郧阳开展“心马跑”活动

中共平果县委召开理论学习中心组学习(扩大)会议

金融租赁服务长江经济带战略联盟成立

上林:捐款助防控 同心战“疫”情

区块链信息服务规范出台 洋外壳也要监管

“副业”成“刚需”?年轻人对生活的注解日渐多元

智能改造用科技说话 盟威戴卡让滨州货媲美“德国制造”

网友评论

  • 雨花郡主BAffy

     Asaset-offagainstthelistofparadoxescitedfromPlato,itwouldbeeasytoquoteastilllongerlistofbrilliantcontributionstothecauseoftruthandright,tostrikeabalancebetweenthetwo,andtoshowthattherewasapreponderanceonthepositivesidesufficientlygreattojustifythefavourableverdictofposterity.Webelieve,however,thatsuchamethodwouldbeasmisleadingasitissuperficial.NeitherPlatonoranyotherthinkerofthesamecalibre—ifanyothertherebe—shouldbeestimatedbyasimpleanalysisofhisopinions.Wemustgobacktotheunderlyingforcesofwhichindividual175opinionsaretheresultantandtherevelation.Everysystematicsynthesisrepresentscertainprofoundintellectualtendencies,derivedpartlyfrompreviousphilosophies,partlyfromthesocialenvironment,partlyfromthethinker’sowngeniusandcharacter.Eachofsuchtendenciesmaybesalutaryandnecessary,accordingtotheconditionsunderwhichitcomesintoplay,andyettwoormoreofthemmayformahighlyunstableandexplosivecompound.Nevertheless,itisinspeculativecombinationsthattheyarepreservedanddevelopedwiththegreatestdistinctness,anditistherethatwemustseekforthemifwewouldunderstandthepsychologicalhistoryofourrace.Andthisiswhywebeganbyintimatingthatthelinesofourinvestigationmaytakeusbackovergroundwhichhasbeenalreadytraversed,andforwardintoregionswhichcannotatpresentbecompletelysurveyed.

  • 雪灵芝XMCF0

    Timon,acelebrateddiscipleofPyrrho,addedanotherand,fromthespeculativepointofview,amuchmorepowerfulargument,which,however,mayequallyhavebeen139borrowedfromthemaster’slectures.ReadersofthePosteriorAnalyticswillrememberhowstronglyAristotledwellsonthenecessityofstartingwithfirstprincipleswhichareself-evidentlytrue.Thechainofdemonstrationmusthavesomethingtohangon,itcannotbecarriedbackadinfinitum.Now,Timonwouldnotadmitofsuchathingasfirstprinciples.Everyassumption,hesays,mustrestonsomepreviousassumption,andasthisprocesscannotbecontinuedforever,therecanbenodemonstrationatall.ThisbecameaveryfavouriteweaponwiththelaterSceptics,and,stillatthesuggestionofAristotle,theyaddedthefurther‘trope’ofcompellingtheiradversariestochoosebetweengoingbackadinfinitumandreasoninginacircle—inotherwords,provingthepremisesbymeansoftheconclusion.Modernsciencewouldnotfeelmuchappalledbythescepticaldilemma.Itsactualfirstprinciplesareonlyprovisionallyassumedasultimate,anditisimpossibleforustotellhowmuchfarthertheiranalysismaybepursued;while,again,theirvalidityisguaranteedbythecircularprocessofshowingthattheconsequencesdeducedfromthemagreewiththefactsofexperience.Butasagainstthosemodernphilosopherswho,inadherencetotheAristoteliantradition,stillseektobasetheirsystemsonfirstprinciplesindependentofanyindividualexperience,thescepticalargumentisunanswerable,andhasevenbeenstrengthenedbytheprogressofknowledge.Tothisday,thinkersofdifferentschoolscannotagreeaboutthefoundationsofbelief,andwhattooneseemsself-evidentlytrue,istoanothereitherconceivablyoractuallyfalse.ToMr.HerbertSpencerthepersistenceofforceisanecessarytruth;toProf.StanleyJevonsitscreationisaperfectlypossiblecontingency;whiletoothers,again,thewholeconceptionofforce,asunderstoodbyMr.Spencer,issoabsolutelyunmeaningthattheywoulddeclinetoentertainanypropositionabouttheinvariabilityoftheobjectiverealitywhichitissupposedtorepresent.Andwhenthe140àprioridogmatistaffectstotreatthenegationsofhisopponentsassomethingthattheydonotthink,butonlythinktheythink,theymay,withperfectfairness,attributehisrejectionoftheirbeliefs—as,forexample,free-will—toasimilarsubjectiveillusion.Moreover,thepureexperimentalistscanpointtoacircumstancenotforeseenbytheancientsceptics,whichisthatpropositionsoncegenerallyregardedasincontrovertiblebythinkingmen,arenowasgenerallyabandonedbythem.

  • 如萱紫儿Twfhb

    Again,whateverharmonyevolutionmayintroduceintoourconceptions,whateverhopesitmayencouragewithregardtothefutureofourrace,onedoesnotseepreciselywhatsanctionitgivestomoralityatpresent—thatistosay,howitmakesself-sacrificeeasierthanbefore.Becausecertainforceshavebeenunconsciouslyworkingtowardsacertainendthroughagespast,whyshouldIconsciouslyworktowardsthesameend?Iftheperfectionofhumanityispredetermined,myconductcannotpreventitsconsummation;ifitinanywaydependsonme,thequestionreturns,whyshouldmyparticularinterestsbesacrificedtoit?Themanwhodoesnotalreadylovehiscontemporarieswhomhehasseenisunlikelytolovethemthemoreforthesakeofaremoteposteritywhomhewillneverseeatall.Finally,itmustberememberedthatevolutionisonlyhalfthecosmicprocess;itispartiallyconditionedateverystagebydissolution,towhichinthelongrunitmustentirelygiveway;andif,asMr.Spencerobserves,evolutionisthemoreinterestingofthetwo,105thispreferenceisitselfduetothelifewardtendencyofourthoughts;inotherwords,tothosemoralsentimentswhichitissoughttobaseonwhat,abstractedlyconsidered,hasallalongbeenacreationoftheirown.

  • 但法国4B4KO

    ButaprofounderanalysisofexperienceisnecessarybeforewecancometotherealrootsofPlato’sscheme.Itmustberememberedthatourphilosopherwasarevolutionistofthemostthorough-goingdescription,thatheobjectednottothisorthatconstitutionofhistime,buttoallexistingconsti254tutionswhatever.Now,everygreatrevolutionarymovement,ifinsomerespectsanadvanceandanevolution,isinotherrespectsaretrogressionandadissolution.Whenthemostcomplexformsofpoliticalassociationarebrokenup,theolderorsubordinateformssuddenlyacquirenewlifeandmeaning.Whatistrueofpracticeistruealsoofspeculation.Havingbrokenawayfromthemostadvancedcivilisation,Platowasthrownbackonthespontaneousorganisationofindustry,onthearmy,theschool,thefamily,thesavagetribe,andeventheherdofcattle,fortypesofsocialunion.Itwasbytakingsomehintsfromeachoftheseminoraggregatesthathesucceededinbuildinguphisidealpolity,which,notwithstandingitssupposedsimplicityandconsistency,isoneofthemostheterogeneouseverframed.Theprinciplesonwhichitrestsarenotreallycarriedouttotheirlogicalconsequences;theyinterferewithandsupplementoneanother.Therestrictionofpoliticalpowertoasingleclassisavowedlybasedonthenecessityforadivisionoflabour.Oneman,wearetold,canonlydoonethingwell.ButPlatoshouldhaveseenthattheproducerisnotforthatreasontobemadeamonopolist;andthat,toborrowhisownfavouriteexample,shoesareproperlymanufacturedbecausetheshoemakeriskeptinorderbythecompetitionofhisrivalsandbythefreedomoftheconsumertopurchasewhereverhepleases.Atheniandemocracy,sofarfromcontradictingthelessonsofpoliticaleconomy,was,intruth,theirlogicalapplicationtogovernment.Thepeopledidnotreallygovernthemselves,nordotheyinanymoderndemocracy,buttheylistenedtodifferentproposals,justastheymightchooseamongdifferentarticlesinashopordifferenttendersforbuildingahouse,acceptedthemostsuitable,andthenleftittobecarriedoutbytheirtrustedagents.

     

  • 大笨蛋mDqtD

    v

  • 扒皮成P20fn

     

  • 草莓果Dz7Yb

    WehaveaccompaniedPlatotoapointwherehebeginstoseehiswaytowardsaradicalreconstructionofallexistingbeliefsandinstitutions.Inthenextchapterweshallattempttoshowhowfarhesucceededinthisgreatpurpose,howmuch,inhispositivecontributionstothoughtisofpermanent,andhowmuchofmerelybiographicalorliteraryvalue.

     Or,again,wemaysaythattwoprinciples,—theNominalisticaswellastheRealistic,—arehereatwork.Byvirtueoftheone,SpinozamakesBeingsomethingbeyondandabovethefactsofexperience.Byvirtueoftheotherhereinvestsitwithconcretereality,butarealityaltogethertranscendingourpowersofimagination.Verymuch,also,thatPlotinussaysabouthisOnemightbeappliedtoSpinoza’sSubstance,butwithanewandpositivemeaning.TheFirstCauseisaboveexistence,butonlyexistenceasrestrictedwithintheverynarrowlimitsofourexperience,andonlyasinfiniterealitytranscendsthepartswhichitincludes.

  • 绿卡纸GtDrv

     Sidebyside,however,withtheseexaltedaspirations,theoldpopularbeliefinasubterraneanabodeofsoulssurvivedunderitsverycrudestforms;andherealsomodernexplorationshavebroughttolightverysurprisingevidenceofthestrengthwithwhichthegrotesqueideaofCharontheStygianferrymanstillkeptitsholdontheimaginationofuneducatedpeople.OriginallypeculiartoGreece,whereitstillexistsunderaslightlyalteredform,thissuperstitionpenetratedintotheWestatacomparativelyearlyperiod.ThusinthetombsofCampaniaalonemanyhundredskeletonshavebeenfoundwithbronzecoinsintheirmouths,placedtheretopaytheirpassageacrosstheStyx;andexplorationsatPraenesteshowthatthiscustomreachesbacktothemiddleofthe237fourthcenturyB.C.WealsolearnfromLucianthat,inhistime,theoldanimisticbeliefswereentertainedtotheextentofburningorburyingtheclothes,ornaments,andotherappurtenancesofdeceasedpersonsalongwiththeirbodies,undertheideathattheownersrequiredthemforuseintheotherworld;anditistosuchdepositsthatourmuseumsofclassicalantiquityowethegreaterpartoftheircontents.369

标签列表