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“【Z5dS】腾讯分分彩全天免费全民计划”VIII.

ReturningtoSocrates,wemustfurthernotethathisidentificationofvirtuewithscience,thoughitdoesnotex135pressthewholetruth,expressesaconsiderablepartofit,especiallyastohimconductwasamuchmorecomplexproblemthanitistosomemodernteachers.Onlythosewhobelieveintheexistenceofintuitiveandinfalliblemoralperceptionscanconsistentlymaintainthatnothingiseasierthantoknowourduty,andnothingharderthantodoit.Eventhen,theintuitionsmustextendbeyondgeneralprinciples,andalsoinformushowandwheretoapplythem.Thatnosuchinwardilluminationexistsissufficientlyshownbyexperience;somuchsothatthemischiefdonebyfoolishpeoplewithgoodintentionshasbecomeproverbial.Moderncasuistshave,indeed,drawnadistinctionbetweentheintentionandtheact,makingusresponsibleforthepurityoftheformer,notfortheconsequencesofthelatter.ThoughbasedontheSocraticdivisionbetweenmindandbody,thisdistinctionwouldnothavecommendeditselftoSocrates.Hisobjectwasnottosavesoulsfromsin,buttosaveindividuals,families,andstatesfromtheruinwhichignoranceoffactentails.

SoalsowithAristotle.Asanaturalist,heis,indeed,purelyobjective;butwhenheoffersageneralexplanationoftheworld,thesubjectiveelementintroducedbyProtagorasandSocratesatoncereappears.Simpleabsoluteself-consciousnessisforhimthehighestgood,theanimatingprincipleofNature,themostcompletereality,andtheonlyonethatwouldremain,weretheelementofnonentitytodisappearfromthisworld.Theuttermisconceptionofdynamicphenomenawhichmarkshisphysicsandastronomycanonlybeaccountedforbyhisdesiretogivelifethepriorityovermechanicalmotion,andreasonthepriorityoverlife.ThushismetaphysicalmethodisessentiallyidenticalwiththeintrospectivemethodrecommendedbyPlotinus,and,iffullyworkedout,mighthaveledtothesameresults.

Fortunately,thedialecticmethodprovedstrongerthanitsowncreators,and,oncesetgoing,introducedfeelingsandex160periencesofwhichtheyhadneverdreamed,withinthehorizonofphilosophicconsciousness.Itwasfoundthatifwomenhadmuchtolearn,muchalsomightbelearnedfromthem.Theirwishescouldnotbetakenintoaccountwithoutgivingagreatlyincreasedprominenceintheguidanceofconducttosuchsentimentsasfidelity,purity,andpity;andtothatextentthereligionwhichtheyhelpedtoestablishhas,atleastinprinciple,leftnoroomforanyfurtherprogress.Ontheotherhand,itisonlybyreasonthatthemoreexclusivelyfeminineimpulsescanbefreedfromtheirprimitivenarrownessandelevatedintotrulyhumanemotions.Love,whenlefttoitself,causesmorepainthanpleasure,forthewordsoftheoldidylstillremaintruewhichassociateitwithjealousyascruelasthegrave;pity,withoutprevision,createsmoresufferingthanitrelieves;andblindfidelityisinstinctivelyopposedeventothemostbeneficentchanges.WearestillsufferingfromtheexcessivepreponderancewhichCatholicismgavetotheideasofwomen;butweneednotlistentothosewhotellusthatthevariedexperiencesofhumanitycannotbeorganisedintoarational,consistent,self-supportingwhole.

Butallthistimethepopularbeliefinomenshadcontinuedunaffected,andhadapparentlyevenincreased.ThepeculiarGreekfeelingknownasDeisidaimoniaisfirstsatirisedbyTheophrastus,whodefinesitascowardicewithregardtothegods,andgivesseveralamusinginstancesoftheanxietyoccasionedbyitspresence—allconnectedwiththeinterpretationofomens—suchasAristophanescouldhardlyhavefailedtonoticehadtheybeenusualinhistime.Norweresuchfanciesconfinedtotheignorantclasses.AlthoughtheStoicscannotbeaccusedofDeisidaimonia,theygavetheirpowerfulsanctiontothebeliefindivination,ashasbeenalreadymentionedinouraccountoftheirphilosophy.It223wouldseemthatwhateverauthoritythegreatoracularcentreshadlostwassimplyhandedovertolowerandmorepopularformsofthesamesuperstition.

TheintroductionofTeichmüller’snameaffordsmeanopportunityformentioningthatmyattentionwasnotdirectedtohisbrilliantresearchesintovariousquestionsconnectedwithGreekphilosophy,andmoreparticularlywiththesystemsofPlatoandAristotle,untilitwastoolateformetoprofitbytheminthepresentwork.IalludemoreparticularlytohisStudienzurGeschichtederBegriffe(Berlin,1874),andtohisrecentlypublishedLiterarischeFehdenimviertenJahrhundertvorChr.(Breslau,1881).Thechiefpointsoftheformerworkare,thatPlatowasreallyapantheistormonist,not,asiscommonlybelievedandasIhavemyselftakenforgranted,adualist;that,asaconsequenceofthesuppressionofindividualitywhichcharacteriseshissystem,hedidnotreallyacceptorteachthedoctrineofpersonalimmortality,althoughhewishedthatthemassofthepeopleshouldbelieveit;thatPlatonomoreattributedatranscendentexistencetohisideasthandidAristotletohissubstantialforms;andthatinputtinganoppositeinterpretationonhisoldmaster’stheory,Aristotleisguiltyofgrossmisrepresentation.ThemostimportantpointoftheLiterarischeFehdenisthatAristotlepublishedhisEthicsxixwhilePlatowasstillaliveandengagedinthecompositionofhisLaws,andthatcertainpassagesinthelatterwork,ofwhichonerelatestofree-willandtheothertotheunityofvirtue(861,Aff.and962ff.)wereintendedasareplytoAristotle’swell-knowncriticismsonthePlatonictheoryofethics.

Totheobjectionthathissuspensiveattitudewouldrenderactionimpossible,Arcesilausrepliedthatanymentalrepresentationwassufficienttosetthewillinmotion;andthat,inchoosingbetweendifferentcourses,probabilitywasthemostrationalmeansofdetermination.Butthetaskofreducingprobableevidencetoasystemwasreservedforastillablerdialectician,whodidnotappearonthesceneuntilacenturyafterhistime.ArcesilausiscommonlycalledthefounderoftheMiddle,CarneadesthefounderoftheNewAcademy.Thedistinctionis,however,purelynominal.Carneadesfoundednothing.Hisprincipleswereidenticalwiththoseofhispredecessor;andhisclaimtobeconsideredthegreatestoftheGreekscepticsisduetohishavinggiventhoseprinciplesawiderapplicationandamoresystematicdevelopment.TheStoicsregardeditasaspecialdispensationofprovidence149thatChrysippus,theorganisinggeniusoftheirschool,shouldhavecomebetweenitstwomostformidableopponents,beingthusplacedinapositiontoanswertheobjectionsoftheoneandtorefutebyanticipationthoseoftheother.232ItmightseemtolessprejudicedobserversthatthethinkerwhosecausebenefitedmostbythisarrangementwasCarneades.Parodyingawell-knowniambic,heusedtosay:Withinthelasttwelveyearsseveralbooks,bothlargeandsmall,haveappeared,dealingeitherwiththephilosophyofAristotleasawhole,orwiththegeneralprinciplesonwhichitisconstructed.TheBerlineditionofAristotle’scollectedworkswassupplementedin1870bythepublicationofamagnificentindex,fillingnearlyninehundredquartopages,forwhichwehavetothankthelearningandindustryofBonitz.161ThencametheunfinishedtreatiseofGeorgeGrote,plannedonsovastascalethatitwould,ifcompletelycarriedout,haverivalledtheauthor’sHistoryofGreeceinbulk,andperhapsexceededtheauthenticremainsoftheStagiritehimself.Asitis,wehaveafullaccount,expositoryandcritical,oftheOrganon,achapterontheDeAnima,andsomefragmentsonotherAristotelianwritings,allmarkedbyGrote’swonderfulsagacityandgoodsense.In1879anewandgreatlyenlargededitionbroughtthatportionofZeller’sworkonGreekPhilosophywhichdealswithAristotleandthePeripatetics162fullyuptothelevelofitscompanionvolumes;andwearegladtoseethat,likethem,itisshortlytoappearinanEnglishdress.TheolderworkofBrandis163goesoverthesameground,and,thoughmuchbehindthepresentstateofknowledge,maystillbeconsultedwithadvantage,onaccountofitscopiousandclearanalysesoftheAristoteliantexts.276Togetherwiththeseponderoustomes,wehavetomentionthelittleworkofSirAlexanderGrant,164which,althoughintendedprimarilyfortheunlearned,isarealcontributiontoAristotelianscholarship,and,probablyassuch,receivedthehonoursofaGermantranslationalmostimmediatelyafteritsfirstpublication.Mr.EdwinWallace’sOutlinesofthePhilosophyofAristotle165isofadifferentandmuchlesspopularcharacter.Originallydesignedfortheuseoftheauthor’sownpupils,itdoesforAristotle’sentiresystemwhatTrendelenburghasdoneforhislogic,andRitterandPrellerforallGreekphilosophy—thatistosay,itbringstogetherthemostimportanttexts,andaccompaniesthemwitharemarkablylucidandinterestinginterpretation.FinallywehaveM.BarthélemySaint-Hilaire’sIntroductiontohistranslationofAristotle’sMetaphysics,republishedinapocketvolume.166Wecansafelyrecommendittothosewhowishtoacquireaknowledgeofthesubjectwiththeleastpossibleexpenditureoftrouble.Thestyleisdelightfullysimple,andthattheauthorshouldwritefromthestandpointoftheFrenchspiritualisticschoolisnotaltogetheradisadvantage,forthatschoolispartlyofAristotelianorigin,anditsadherentsare,therefore,mostlikelytoreproducethemaster’stheorieswithsympatheticappreciation.

InPlato’sParmenideswehavetonotethegermofanewdialectic.Thereitissuggestedthatwemayovercomethedifficultiesattendingaparticulartheory—inthisinstancethetheoryofself-existingideas—byconsideringhowmuchgreaterarethedifficultieswhichwouldensueonitsrejection.TheargumentsadvancedbyZenotheEleaticagainsttherealityofmotionarementionedasacaseinpoint;andPlatoproceedstoillustratehisproposedmethodbyshowingwhatconsequencesrespectivelyfollowifwefirstassumetheexistence,andthenthenon-existenceoftheOne;butthewholeanalysisseemsvaluelessforitsimmediatepurpose,sincetheresultingimpossibilitiesoneithersideareleftexactlybalanced;andPlatodoesnot,likesomemodernmetaphysicians,callinouraffectionstodecidethecontroversy.

WhentheAcademicianspassfromtheformtothematterofdogmaticphilosophy,theircriticismsacquiregreaterinterestandgreaterweight.Onthisground,theirassaultsareprincipallydirectedagainstthetheologyoftheirStoicandEpicureanrivals.Itishereinparticularthat151CarneadesrevealshimselftousastheHumeofantiquity.Neverhasthecaseforagnosticismbeenmorepowerfullymadeoutthanbyhimorbythediscipleswhomheinspired.Totheargumentfortheexistenceofsupernaturalbeingsderivedfromuniversalconsent,hereplies,first,thattheopinionofthevulgarisworthless,andsecondly,thatmen’sbeliefsaboutthegodsarehopelesslyatvariancewithoneanother,eventhesamedivinitybeingmadethesubjectofnumberlessdiscordantlegends.238Hereducesthepolytheisticdeificationofnaturalobjectstoanabsurditybyforcingitbackthroughaseriesofinsensiblegradationsintoabsolutefetichism.239Thepersonificationofmentalqualitiesissimilarlytreated,untilanhypothesisisprovidedforeverypassingmood.240Then,turningtothemorephilosophicaldeismoftheStoics,heassailstheirtheoryofthedivinebenevolencewithinstanceafterinstanceoftheapparentmalevolenceandiniquitytobefoundinNature;vividlyremindingoneofthefactsadducedbyMr.HerbertSpencerinconfutationofthesimilarviewsheldbymodernEnglishtheologians.241Asagainstthewholetheoryoffinalcauses,Carneadesarguesafteramethodwhich,thoughlogicallysound,couldnotthenpresentitselfwiththeauthoritywhichadvancingsciencehasmorerecentlyshownittopossess.‘WhatyouStoics,’hesays,152‘explainastheresultofconsciouspurpose,otherphilosophers,likeStratoforinstance,explainwithequalplausibilityastheresultofnaturalcausation.AndsuchisourignoranceoftheforcesatworkinNaturethatevenwherenomechanicalcausecanbeassigned,itwouldbepresumptuoustomaintainthatnonecanexist.242Thereignoflawdoesnotnecessarilyprovethepresenceofintelligence;itismerelytheevidenceofauniformmovementquiteconsistentwithallthatweknowabouttheworkingofunconsciousforces.243Tocontend,withSocrates,thatthehumanmindmustbederivedfromaUniversalMindpervadingallNaturewouldlogicallyinvolvethetransferofeveryhumanattributetoitsoriginalsource.244AndtosaythattheSupremeBeing,becauseitsurpassesman,mustpossessanintelligencelikehis,isnomorerationalthantomakethesameassumptionwithregardtoagreatcitybecauseitissuperiortoanant.’245

TopaintSocratesathishighestandhisbest,itwasnecessarytobreakthroughthenarrowlimitsofhishistoricindividuality,andtoshowhow,hadtheybeenpresentedtohim,hewouldhavedealtwithproblemsoutsidetheexperienceofahome-stayingAtheniancitizen.Thefounderofidealism—thatistosay,therealisationofreason,thesystematicapplicationofthoughttolife—hadsucceededinhistaskbecausehehadembodiedthenoblestelementsoftheAthenianDêmos,orderliness,patriotism,self-control,andpublicityofdebate,togetherwithareceptiveintelligenceforimprovementseffectedinotherstates.But,justastheimpulsewhichenabledthosequalitiestotelldecisivelyonGreekhistoryatamomentofinestimableimportancecamefromtheAthenianaristocracy,withitsDoriansympathies,itsadventurousambition,anditskeenattentiontoforeignaffairs,soalsodidPlato,carryingthesamespiritintophilosophy,bringthedialecticmethodintocontactwitholderandbroadercurrentsofspeculation,andemployittorecognisethewholespiritualactivityofhisrace.

ItisgenerallyassumedbytheGermancriticsthattheatomictheorywaspeculiarlyfittedtoserveasabasisfortheindividualisticethicsofEpicureanism.Tothiswecanhardlyagree.Theinsignificanceandpowerlessnessoftheatoms,exceptwhenaggregatedtogetherinenormousnumbers,wouldseemtobenaturallymorefavourabletoasystemwherethecommunitywentforeverythingandtheindividualfornothing;nordoesthegeneralacceptanceofatomismbymodernscienceseemtobeaccompaniedbyanyrelaxationofthesocialsentimentinitsprofessors.HadtheStoicsfollowedDemocritusandEpicurusHeracleitus—atleastaconceivablehypothesis—someequallycogentreasonwoulddoubtlesshavebeenforthcomingtoindicatetheappropriatenessoftheirchoice.161Asitis,wehavenoevidencethatEpicurussawanythingmoreintheatomictheorythanaconvenientexplanationoftheworldonpurelymechanicalprinciples.

WehavealreadyobservedthatScepticismamongtheancientswasoftencultivatedinconnexionwithsomepositivedoctrinewhichitindirectlyservedtorecommend.Inthecaseofitslastsupporters,thiswasthestudyofmedicineonanempiricalasopposedtoadeductivemethod.TheScepticalcontentionisthatwecannotgobeyondappearances;theempiricalcontentionis,thatallknowledgecomestousfromexperience,andthatthisonlyshowsushowphenomenaarerelatedtooneanother,nothowtheyarerelatedtotheirunderlyingcauses,whetherefficientorfinal.Thesealliedpointsofviewhavebeenbroughtintostillmoreintimateassociationbymodernthought,which,aswillbeshownintheconcludingchapter,hassprungfromamodifiedformoftheancientScepticism,powerfullyaidedbyasimultaneousdevelopmentofphysicalscience.Atthesametime,thenewschoolhavesucceededinshakingoffthenarrownessandtimidityoftheirpredecessors,whowerestillsofarundertheinfluenceoftheolddogmatistsastobelievethattherewasaninherentoppositionbetweenobservationandreasoninginthemethodsofdiscovery,betweenfactsandexplanationsinthetruthsofscience,andbetweenantecedenceandcausationintherealitiesofNature.Inthisrespect,astronomyhasdonemorefortherightadjustmentofourconceptionsthanany190otherbranchofknowledge;anditisremarkablethatSextusEmpiricus,thelasteminentrepresentativeofancientScepticism,andtheonlyone(unlessCiceroistobecalledaSceptic)whosewritingsarestillextant,shouldexpresslyexceptastronomyfromthedestructivecriticismtowhichhesubjectsthewholerangeofstudiesincludedinwhatweshouldcalltheuniversitycurriculumofhistime.301Weneednotenterintoananalysisoftheponderouscompilationreferredto;fornearlyeverypointofinterestwhichitcompriseshasalreadybeentouchedoninthecourseofourinvestigation;andSextusdiffersonlyfromhispredecessorsbyaddingtheargumentsoftheNewAcademytothoseofProtagorasandPyrrho,thuscompletingtheScepticalcycle.Itwillbeenoughtonoticethesingularcircumstancethatsocopiousandcarefulanenumerationofthegroundswhichitwaspossibletourgeagainstdogmatism—including,aswehaveseen,manystillemployedforthesameorotherpurposes,—shouldhaveomittedthetwomostpowerfulsolventsofany.ThesewereleftfortheexquisitecriticalacumenofHumetodiscover.Theyrelatetotheconceptionofcausation,andtotheconceptionofourownpersonalityasanindivisible,continuouslyexistingsubstance,beingattemptstoshowthatbothinvolveassumptionsofanillegitimatecharacter.SextuscomesuptotheveryvergeofHume’sobjectiontotheformerwhenheobservesthatcausationimpliesrelation,whichcanonlyexistinthought;302buthedoesnotaskhowwecometothinksucharelation,stilllessdoesheconnectitwiththeperceptionofphenomenalantecedence;andhisattacksonthevariousmentalfacultiesassumedbypsychologistspassoverthefundamentalpostulateofpersonalidentity,thusleavingDescarteswhatseemedasafefoundationwhereontorebuildtheedificeofmetaphysicalphilosophy.

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  • 雨花郡主ZsE3U

     

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  • 如萱紫儿2S7Z2

    ItisinthislastconversationthatthehistoricalSocratesmostnearlyresemblestheSocratesofPlato’sApologia.Instead,however,ofleavingEuthydêmustotheconsciousnessofhisignorance,asthelatterwouldhavedone,heproceeds,inXenophon’saccount,todirecttheyoungman’sstudiesaccordingtothesimplestandclearestprinciples;andwehaveanotherconversationwherereligioustruthsareinstilledbythesamecatecheticalprocess.92Heretheeroteticmethodisevidentlyameredidacticartifice,andSocratescouldeasilyhavewrittenouthislessonundertheformofaregulardemonstration.Butthereislittledoubtthatinothercasesheuseditasameansforgivingincreasedprecisiontohisownideas,andalsofortestingtheirvalidity,that,inaword,thehabitoforalcommunicationgavehimafamiliaritywithlogicalprocesseswhichcouldnototherwisehavebeenacquired.Thesamecross-examinationthatactedasaspuronthemindoftherespondent,reactedasabridleonthemindoftheinterrogator,obliginghimtomakesurebeforehandofeveryassertionthatheputforward,tostudythemutualbearingsofhisbeliefs,toanalysethemintotheircomponentelements,andtoexaminetherelationinwhichtheycollectivelystoodtotheopinionsgenerallyaccepted.IthasalreadybeenstatedthatSocratesgavetheeroteticmethodtwonewapplications;wenowseeinwhatdirectiontheytended.Hemadeitavehicleforpositiveinstruction,andhealsomadeitaninstrumentforself-discipline,ahelptofulfillingtheDelphicprecept,‘Knowthyself.’Thesecondapplicationwasevenmoreimportantthanthefirst.Withusliterarytraining—thatis,thepracticeofcontinuousreadingandcomposition—issowidelydiffused,thatconversationhasbecome142ratherahindrancethanahelptothecultivationofargumentativeability.ThereversewastruewhenSocrateslived.Longfamiliaritywithdebatewasunfavourabletotheartofwriting;andthespeechesinThucydidesshowhowdifficultitwasstillfoundtopresentclosereasoningundertheformofanuninterruptedexposition.Thetraditionsofconversationalthrustandparrysurvivedinrhetoricalprose;andthecrossedswordsoftongue-fencewererepresentedbythebristlingchevauxdefriseofalabouredantitheticalarrangementwhereeveryclausereceivednewstrengthandpointfromcontrastwithitsopposingneighbour.

  • 但法国OzqxV

     Theantitheticalstructureofthewholesystemisreproducedeveninthefirstsyllogisticfigure,wherethereisasimilaroppositionbetweenthefirstmood,bywhichaloneuniversalaffirmativescanbeobtained,andtheremainingthree,whoseconclusionsareeithernegativeorparticular,orboth.Andthecomplicatedrulesfortestingthevalidityofthosesyllogismsinwhichthepremisesaredistinguishedasnecessary,actual,andpossible,arestillmoreobviouslybasedonAristotle’sfalsemetaphysicaldistinctions;sothatwiththeoverthrowofthosedistinctionslargeportionsoftheAnalyticslosetheirentirevalueformodernstudents.

  • 大笨蛋0wk8a

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  • 扒皮成eL3bB

     

  • 草莓果Ts7Ya

    WehavenotheretoexaminethescientificachievementsofPythagorasandhisschool;theybelongtothehistoryofscience,nottothatofpurethought,andthereforelieoutsidethepresentdiscussion.Something,however,mustbesaidofPythagoreanismasaschemeofmoral,religious,andsocialreform.Aloneamongthepre-Socraticsystems,itundertooktofurnisharuleofconductaswellasatheoryofbeing.Yet,asZellerhaspointedout,11itwasonlyanapparentanomaly,fortheethicalteachingofthePythagoreanswasnotbasedontheirphysicaltheories,exceptinsofarasadeepreverenceforlawandorderwascommontoboth.13Perhaps,also,theseparationofsoulandbody,withtheascriptionofahigherdignitytotheformer,whichwasadistinctivetenetoftheschool,maybeparalleledwiththepositiongiventonumberasakindofspiritualpowercreatingandcontrollingtheworldofsense.Soalsopoliticalpowerwastobeentrustedtoanaristocracytrainedineverynobleaccomplishment,andfittedforexercisingauthorityoverothersbyself-discipline,bymutualfidelity,andbyhabitualobediencetoaruleofright.Nevertheless,wemustlook,withZeller,forthetruesourceofPythagoreanismasamoralmovementinthatgreatwaveofreligiousenthusiasmwhichsweptoverHellasduringthesixthcenturybeforeChrist,intimatelyassociatedwiththeimportationofApollo-worshipfromLycia,withtheconcentrationofspiritualauthorityintheoracularshrineofDelphi,andthepoliticalpredominanceoftheDorianrace,thoseNormansoftheancientworld.LegendhasthrownthisconnexionintoapoeticalformbymakingPythagorasthesonofApollo;andtheSamiansage,althoughhimselfanIonian,chosetheDoriancitiesofSouthernItalyasafavourablefieldforhisnewteaching,justasCalvinismfoundareadieracceptanceintheadvancedpostsoftheTeutonicracethanamongthepeoplewhenceitsfoundersprang.Perhapsthenearestparallel,althoughonafarmoreextensivescale,forthereligiousmovementofwhichwearespeaking,isthespectacleofferedbymediaevalEuropeduringthetwelfthandthirteenthcenturiesofourera,whenaseriesofgreatPopeshadconcentratedallspiritualpowerintheirownhands,andweresendingfortharmyafterarmyofCrusaderstotheEast;whenallWesternEuropehadawakenedtotheconsciousnessofitscommonChristianity,andeachindividualwasthrilledbyasenseofthetremendousalternativescommittedtohischoice;whentheDominicanandFranciscanorderswerefounded;whenGothicarchitectureandFlorentinepaintingarose;whentheTroubadoursandMinnes?ngerswerepour14ingouttheirnotesofscornfulortenderpassion,andtheloveofthesexeshadbecomeasentimentasloftyandenduringasthedevotionoffriendtofriendhadbeeninGreeceofold.ThebloomofGreekreligiousenthusiasmwasmoreexquisiteandevanescentthanthatoffeudalCatholicism;inferiorinpurespiritualityandofmorerestrictedsignificanceasafactorintheevolutionofhumanity,itatleastremainedfreefromtheecclesiasticaltyranny,themurderousfanaticism,andtheunlovelysuperstitionsofmediaevalfaith.Butpolytheismunderanyformwasfatallyincapableofcopingwiththenewspiritofenquiryawakenedbyphilosophy,andtheoldmyths,withtheirnaturalisticcrudities,couldnotlongsatisfythereasonandconscienceofthinkerswhohadlearnedinanotherschooltoseekeverywhereforacentralunityofcontrol,andtobowtheirimaginationsbeforethepassionlessperfectionofeternallaw.

     

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