湖南71所高职院校单招计划14.29万人

vi6a3-news 发布时间: 2020-07-11 05:47:26

“大发云彩神app”FreshdifficultiesariseinexplainingtheactivitywhichtheSoul,inherturn,exerts.Asoriginallyconceived,herfunctionwassufficientlyclear.Mediatingbetweentwoworlds,shetransformstheloweroneintoalikenessofthehigher,stampingonmaterialobjectsavisibleimageoftheeternalIdeasrevealedtoherbyacontemplationoftheNous.And,asafurtherelaborationofthisscheme,weweretoldthattheprimarysoulgeneratesaninferiorsoul,which,again,subdividesitselfintothemultitudeofpartialsoulsrequired324fortheanimationofdifferentbodilyorganisms.Butnowthatourphilosopherhasenteredonasyntheticconstructionoftheelementsfurnishedbyhispreliminaryanalysis,hefindshimselfconfrontedbyanentirelynewproblem.Forhisimpliedprincipleisthateachhypostasismustgeneratethegradewhichcomesnextafteritinthedescendingseriesofmanifestations,untilthepossibilitiesofexistencehavebeenexhausted.ButindevelopingandapplyingthenoeticIdeas,theSoul,apparently,findsapre-existingMatterreadytohand.Thusshehastodealwithsomethinglowerthanherself,whichshedidnotcreate,andwhichisnotcreatedbytheFormscombinedwithitinsensibleexperience.Wehearofadescentfromthoughttofeeling,andfromfeelingtosimplevitality,476butineachinstancethedepthoftheSoul’sfallismeasuredbytheextenttowhichshepenetratesintotherecessesofasubstancenotclearlyrelatedtohernortoanythingaboveher.Stillmoreimportantthantheseobservationsthemselvesisthegreattruthhederivesfromthem—sincerediscoveredandworkedoutindetailbyVonBaer—thatinthedevelopmentofeachindividualthegenericcharactersmaketheirappearancebeforethespecificcharacters.211Noristhisamereaccidentalorisolatedremark,but,asweshallshowinthenextchapter,intimatelyconnectedwithoneofthephilosopher’smetaphysicaltheories.Althoughnotanevolutionist,hehasmadeothercontributionstobiology,theimportanceofwhichhasbeenfirstrealisedinthelightoftheevolutiontheory.Thushenoticestheantagonismbetweenindividuationandreproduction;212theconnexionofincreasedsizewithincreasedvitality;213theconnexionofgreatermobility,214andofgreaterintelligence,215withincreasedcomplexityofstructure;thephysiologicaldivisionoflabourinthehigheranimals;216theformationofheterogeneousorgansoutofhomogeneoustissues;217thetendencytowardsgreatercentralisationinthehigherorganisms218—aremarkconnectedwithhistwogreatanatomicaldiscoveries,thecentralpositionoftheheartinthevascularsystem,andthepossessionofabackbonebyallred-bloodedanimals;219theresemblanceofanimalintelligencetoarudimentaryhumanintelligence,especiallyasmanifestedinchildren;220and,finally,heattemptstotraceacontinuousseriesofgradationsconnectingtheinorganicwiththeorganicworld,plantswithanimals,andtheloweranimalswithman.221

And,infact,itwasbyaclosestudyofthatwriter’svoluminoustreatisesthathewasabletocovertheimmenseextentofgroundwhichScepticismthenceforwarddisputedwiththedogmaticschools.NorwerehisattacksdirectedagainstStoicismonly,butagainstallotherpositivesystemspastandpresentaswell.WhathesaysaboutthesupposedfoundationofknowledgeisevennowanunanswerableobjectiontothetranscendentalrealismofMrHerbertSpencer.Statesofconsciousnessspeakforthemselvesalone,theydonotincludetheconsciousnessofanexternalcause.234Butthegroundsonwhichherestshisnegationofallcertaintyarestillsuperficialenough,beingmerelythosesensibleillusionswhichthemodernscienceofobservationhasbeenableeithertoeliminatealtogetherortorestrictwithinnarrowanddefinablelimits.Thatphenomena,sofarfrombeingnecessarilyreferredtoacausewhichisnotphenomenal,cannotbethoughtofatallexceptinrelationtooneanother,andthatknowledgemeansnothingmorethanaconsciousnessofthisrelation,washardlyperceivedbeforethetimeofHume.

‘Whentheluteisbroken

Fromthisgrandsynthesis,however,asingleelementwasomitted;and,liketheuninvitedguestoffairytradition,itprovedstrongenoughsinglytodestroywhathadbeenconstructedbytheunitedeffortsofalltherest.Thiswasthescepticalprinciple,thecriticalanalysisofideas,firstexercisedbyProtagoras,madeanewstarting-pointbySocrates,carriedtoperfectionbyPlato,supplementingexperiencewithAristotle,andfinallyproclaimedinitspurityasthesolefunctionofphilosophybyanentireschoolofGreekthought.Besidestheattentionslavishedoneverywealthyindividual,thosewhohadnochildrenwereespeciallycourted,andthattoobyotherswhowereaswelloffasthemselveswiththeobjectofbeingrememberedintheirwills.Soadvantageousaposition,indeed,didtheseorbi,astheywerecalled,occupy,thatamongthehigherclassestherewasextremeunwillingnesstomarry;although,asanencouragementtopopulation,thefatherofthreechildrenenjoyedseveralsubstantialprivileges.Thiscircumstance,again,bypreventingtheperpetuationofwealthyfamilies,andallowingtheirpropertytopassintothehandsofdegradedfortune-hunters,renderedimpossibletheconsolidationofanewaristocracywhichmighthavereorganisedthetraditionsofliberalculture,andformedaneffectualbarrieragainstthedownwardpressureofdespotismontheonesideandtheinroadsofpopularsuperstitionontheother.

WehavealreadyrepeatedlyalludedtotheonlymanofgeniuswhomEpicureanismevercountedamongitsdisciples.Itistimethatweshoulddeterminewithmoreprecisiontheactualrelationinwhichhestoodtothemasterwhom,withatouchingsurvivalofreligioussentiment,hereveredasasaviourandagod.

ThenextandperhapsthemostimportantpointinfavourofEpicureanismisitstheoryofpleasureastheendofaction.Platohadlefthisideaofthegoodundefined;Aristotlehaddefinedhisinsuchamannerastoshutoutthevastmajorityofmankindfromitspursuit;theStoicshadrevoltedeveryinstinctbyaltogetherdiscardingpleasureasanend,andputtingapurelyformalandhollowperfectioninitsplace.ItmustfurtherbeadmittedthatEpicurus,intracingbackjusticetothetwoideasofinterestandcontract,hadholdofatrueandfertileprinciple.Nevertheless,althoughethicsishisstrongestground,hisusualill-luckpursueshimevenhere.Itiswhereheismostoriginalthathegoesmostastray.Byreducingpleasure,asanendofaction,tothemereremovalofpain,healtersearliersystemsofhedonismfortheworse;andplaysthegameofpessimismbymakingitappearthat,onthewhole,deathmustbepreferabletolife,sinceitiswhatlifecanneverbe—astateofabsoluterepose.Andbymakingself-interest,inthesenseofseekingnothingbutone’sownpleasureorthemeanstoit,theonlyruleofaction,heendangerstheveryfoundationsofsociety.Atbest,theselfishsystem,asColeridgehasbeautifullyobserved,‘standsinasimilarrelationtothelawofconscienceoruniversalselflessreason,asthedialtothesunwhichindicatesitspathbyinterceptingitsradiance.’210NoristheindicationsocertainasColeridgeadmitted.Atimemaycomewhen116self-sacrificeshallbeunnecessaryforthepublicwelfare,butwearenotwithinameasurabledistanceofitasyet.

WhetherPlatoeversucceededinmakingtheideaofGoodquitecleartoothers,oreventohimself,ismorethanwecantell.IntheRepublichedeclinesgivingfurtherexplanationsonthegroundthathispupilshavenotpassedthroughthenecessarymathematicalinitiation.Whetherquantitativereasoningwastofurnishtheformorthematteroftranscendentdialecticisleftundetermined.WearetoldthatononeoccasionalargeaudienceassembledtohearPlatolectureon229theGood,butthat,muchtotheirdisappointment,thediscoursewasentirelyfilledwithgeometricalandastronomicalinvestigations.Bearinginmind,however,thatmathematicalsciencedealschieflywithequations,andthatastronomy,accordingtoPlato,hadforitsobjecttoprovetheabsoluteuniformityofthecelestialmotions,wemayperhapsconcludethattheideaofGoodmeantnomorethantheabstractnotionofidentityorindistinguishablelikeness.Themorecomplexideaoflawasauniformityofrelations,whethercoexistentorsuccessive,hadnotthendawned,butithassincebeensimilarlyemployedtobringphysicsintoharmonywithethicsandlogic.

WehavealreadyobservedthatScepticismamongtheancientswasoftencultivatedinconnexionwithsomepositivedoctrinewhichitindirectlyservedtorecommend.Inthecaseofitslastsupporters,thiswasthestudyofmedicineonanempiricalasopposedtoadeductivemethod.TheScepticalcontentionisthatwecannotgobeyondappearances;theempiricalcontentionis,thatallknowledgecomestousfromexperience,andthatthisonlyshowsushowphenomenaarerelatedtooneanother,nothowtheyarerelatedtotheirunderlyingcauses,whetherefficientorfinal.Thesealliedpointsofviewhavebeenbroughtintostillmoreintimateassociationbymodernthought,which,aswillbeshownintheconcludingchapter,hassprungfromamodifiedformoftheancientScepticism,powerfullyaidedbyasimultaneousdevelopmentofphysicalscience.Atthesametime,thenewschoolhavesucceededinshakingoffthenarrownessandtimidityoftheirpredecessors,whowerestillsofarundertheinfluenceoftheolddogmatistsastobelievethattherewasaninherentoppositionbetweenobservationandreasoninginthemethodsofdiscovery,betweenfactsandexplanationsinthetruthsofscience,andbetweenantecedenceandcausationintherealitiesofNature.Inthisrespect,astronomyhasdonemorefortherightadjustmentofourconceptionsthanany190otherbranchofknowledge;anditisremarkablethatSextusEmpiricus,thelasteminentrepresentativeofancientScepticism,andtheonlyone(unlessCiceroistobecalledaSceptic)whosewritingsarestillextant,shouldexpresslyexceptastronomyfromthedestructivecriticismtowhichhesubjectsthewholerangeofstudiesincludedinwhatweshouldcalltheuniversitycurriculumofhistime.301Weneednotenterintoananalysisoftheponderouscompilationreferredto;fornearlyeverypointofinterestwhichitcompriseshasalreadybeentouchedoninthecourseofourinvestigation;andSextusdiffersonlyfromhispredecessorsbyaddingtheargumentsoftheNewAcademytothoseofProtagorasandPyrrho,thuscompletingtheScepticalcycle.Itwillbeenoughtonoticethesingularcircumstancethatsocopiousandcarefulanenumerationofthegroundswhichitwaspossibletourgeagainstdogmatism—including,aswehaveseen,manystillemployedforthesameorotherpurposes,—shouldhaveomittedthetwomostpowerfulsolventsofany.ThesewereleftfortheexquisitecriticalacumenofHumetodiscover.Theyrelatetotheconceptionofcausation,andtotheconceptionofourownpersonalityasanindivisible,continuouslyexistingsubstance,beingattemptstoshowthatbothinvolveassumptionsofanillegitimatecharacter.SextuscomesuptotheveryvergeofHume’sobjectiontotheformerwhenheobservesthatcausationimpliesrelation,whichcanonlyexistinthought;302buthedoesnotaskhowwecometothinksucharelation,stilllessdoesheconnectitwiththeperceptionofphenomenalantecedence;andhisattacksonthevariousmentalfacultiesassumedbypsychologistspassoverthefundamentalpostulateofpersonalidentity,thusleavingDescarteswhatseemedasafefoundationwhereontorebuildtheedificeofmetaphysicalphilosophy.SimpliciuscontinuedtowritecommentariesonAristotle362afterhisreturn,andwasevensucceededbyayoungergenerationofPlatonicexpositors;butbeforetheendofthesixthcenturypaganismwasextinct,andNeo-Platonism,asaseparateschoolofphilosophy,shareditsfate.Itwillbetheobjectofournextandconcludingchaptertoshowthatthedisappearanceoftheoldreligionandtheoldmethodsofteachingdidnotinvolveanyrealbreakinthecontinuityofthought,andthatmodernspeculationhasbeen,throughthegreaterpartofitshistory,areproductionofGreekideasinnewcombinationsandunderalterednames.

‘Whentheluteisbroken

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  • 雨花郡主mUXZe

    FreshdifficultiesariseinexplainingtheactivitywhichtheSoul,inherturn,exerts.Asoriginallyconceived,herfunctionwassufficientlyclear.Mediatingbetweentwoworlds,shetransformstheloweroneintoalikenessofthehigher,stampingonmaterialobjectsavisibleimageoftheeternalIdeasrevealedtoherbyacontemplationoftheNous.And,asafurtherelaborationofthisscheme,weweretoldthattheprimarysoulgeneratesaninferiorsoul,which,again,subdividesitselfintothemultitudeofpartialsoulsrequired324fortheanimationofdifferentbodilyorganisms.Butnowthatourphilosopherhasenteredonasyntheticconstructionoftheelementsfurnishedbyhispreliminaryanalysis,hefindshimselfconfrontedbyanentirelynewproblem.Forhisimpliedprincipleisthateachhypostasismustgeneratethegradewhichcomesnextafteritinthedescendingseriesofmanifestations,untilthepossibilitiesofexistencehavebeenexhausted.ButindevelopingandapplyingthenoeticIdeas,theSoul,apparently,findsapre-existingMatterreadytohand.Thusshehastodealwithsomethinglowerthanherself,whichshedidnotcreate,andwhichisnotcreatedbytheFormscombinedwithitinsensibleexperience.Wehearofadescentfromthoughttofeeling,andfromfeelingtosimplevitality,476butineachinstancethedepthoftheSoul’sfallismeasuredbytheextenttowhichshepenetratesintotherecessesofasubstancenotclearlyrelatedtohernortoanythingaboveher.

     CHAPTERI.THESTOICS.

  • 雪灵芝b4Mfd

  • 如萱紫儿Dqp8I

    Platoseemstohavefeltverystronglythatallvirtuousactiontendstowardsagoodexceedinginvalueanytemporarysacrificewhichitmayinvolve;andtheacceptedconnotationofethicaltermswententirelyalongwiththisbelief.Buthecouldnotseethataparticularactionmightbegoodforthecommunityatlargeandbadfortheindividualwhoperformedit,notinadifferentsensebutintheverysamesense,asinvolvingadiminutionofhishappiness.ForfromPlato’sabstractandgeneralisingpointofviewallgoodwashomogeneous,andthewelfareoftheindividualwasabsolutelyidentifiedwiththewelfareofthewholetowhichhebelonged.Asagainstthosewhomaderightdependentonmightanderectedself-indulgenceintothelawoflifePlatooccupiedanimpregnableposition.Heshowedthatsuchprinciplesmadesocietyimpossible,andthatwithouthonourevenagangofthievescannotholdtogether.140Healsosawthatitisreasonwhichbringseachindividualintorelationwiththewholeandenableshimtounderstandhisobligationstowardsit;butatthesametimehegavethis232reasonapersonalcharacterwhichdoesnotproperlybelongtoit;or,whatcomestothesamething,hetreatedhumanbeingsaspureentiarationis,thusunwittinglyremovingthenecessityforhavinganymoralityatall.Onhisassumptionitwouldbeabsurdtobreakthelaw;butneitherwouldtherebeanytemptationtobreakit,norwouldanyunpleasantconsequencesfollowonitsviolation.Platospeaksofinjusticeasaninjurytothesoul’shealth,andthereforeasthegreatestevilthatcanbefallahumanbeing,withoutobservingthattheinferenceinvolvesaconfusionofterms.Forhisargumentrequiresthatsoulshouldmeanboththewholeofconsciouslifeandthesystemofabstractnotionsthroughwhichwecommunicateandco-operatewithourfellow-creatures.Allcrimeisaseriousdisturbancetothelatter,foritcannotwithoutabsurditybemadethefoundationofageneralrule;but,apartfrompenalconsequences,itdoesnotimpair,andmaybenefittheformer.

  • 但法国fVK1H

     Thusmuchforthecurrentprejudiceswhichseemedlikelytointerferewithafavourableconsiderationofoursubject.WehavenexttostudytheconditionsbywhichtheformofGreekethicalphilosophywasoriginallydetermined.Foremostamongthesemustbeplacedthemoralconceptionsalreadycurrentlongbeforesystematicreflectioncouldbegin.WhattheyweremaybepartlygatheredfromsomewisesawsattributedbytheGreeksthemselvestotheirSevenSages,butprobablycurrentatamuchearlierperiod.Thepithofthesemaxims,takencollectively,istorecommendthequalitiesattributedbyourownphilosophicpoettohisperfectwoman:—

  • 大笨蛋QmgPW

    v

  • 扒皮成wYhu4

    WemayalsosuspectthatPlatowasdissatisfiednotonlywiththepositiveresultsobtainedbySocrates,butalsowiththeSocraticmethodofconstructinggeneraldefinitions.Torisefromtheparttothewhole,fromparticularinstancestogeneralnotions,wasapopularratherthanascientificprocess;andsometimesitonlyamountedtotakingthecurrentexplanationsandmodifyingthemtosuittheexigenciesofordinaryexperience.Theresultingdefinitionscouldneverbemorethantentative,andaskilfuldialecticiancouldalwaysupsetthembyproducinganunlooked-forexception,orbydiscoveringanambiguityinthetermsbywhichtheywereconveyed.

     

  • 草莓果XM3BD

    ZenohadmoredelicacyorlessfortitudethanHipparchia;andtheverymeagreintellectualfareprovidedbyCratesmusthavelefthisinquisitivemindunsatisfied.AccordinglywefindhimleavingthisratherdisappointingsubstituteforSocrates,tostudyphilosophyunderStilpotheMegariandialecticianandPolemotheheadoftheAcademy;14whileweknowthathemusthavegonebacktoHeracleitusforthephysicalbasisfromwhichcontemporaryspeculationhadbythistimecutitselfcompletelyfree.Atlength,aboutthebeginningofthethirdcenturyB.C.,Zeno,afterhavingbeenalearnerfortwentyyears,openedaschoolonhisownaccount.Asiftomarkthepracticalbearingofhisdoctrinehechoseoneofthemostfrequentedresortsinthecityforitspromulgation.TherewasatAthensaporticocalledthePoecileStoa,adornedwithfrescoesbyPolygn?tus,thegreatestpainteroftheCimonianperiod.Itwasamongthemonumentsofthatwonderfulcity,atoncewhattheLoggiadeiLanziistoFlorence,andwhatRaphael’sStanzearetoRome;while,likethePlacedelaConcordeinParis,itwasdarkenedbytheterribleassociationsofarevolutionaryepoch.AcenturybeforeZeno’stimefourteenhundredAtheniancitizenshadbeenslaughteredunderitscolonnadesbyorderoftheThirty.‘IwillpurifytheStoa,’saidtheCypriotestranger;15andthefeelingsstillassociatedwiththewordStoicismprovehownoblyhispromisewasfulfilled.

     ToSocrateshimselfthestrongestreasonforbelievingintheidentityofconvictionandpracticewas,perhaps,thathehadmadeitalivingreality.Withhimtoknowtheright137andtodoitwerethesame.Inthissensewehavealreadysaidthathislifewasthefirstverificationofhisphilosophy.Andjustastheresultsofhisethicalteachingcanonlybeideallyseparatedfromtheirapplicationtohisconduct,soalsotheseresultsthemselvescannotbekeptapartfromthemethodbywhichtheywerereached;noristheprocessbywhichhereachedthemforhimselfdistinguishablefromtheprocessbywhichhecommunicatedthemtohisfriends.Intouchingonthispoint,wetouchonthatwhichisgreatestandmostdistinctivelyoriginalintheSocraticsystem,orratherintheSocraticimpulsetosystematisationofeverykind.Whatitwaswillbemadeclearerbyrevertingtothecentralconceptionofmind.WithProtagorasmindmeantanever-changingstreamoffeeling;withGorgiasitwasaprincipleofhopelessisolation,theinterchangeofthoughtsbetweenoneconsciousnessandanother,bymeansofsigns,beinganillusion.Socrates,onthecontrary,attributedtoitasteadfastcontroloverpassion,andaunifyingfunctioninsocietythroughitsessentiallysyntheticactivity,itsneedofco-operationandresponsiveassurance.Hesawthatthereasonwhichovercomesanimaldesiretendstodrawmentogetherjustassensualitytendstodrivethemintohostilecollision.Ifherecommendedtemperanceonaccountoftheincreasedegoisticpleasurewhichitsecures,herecommendeditalsoasmakingtheindividualamoreefficientinstrumentforservingthecommunity.Ifheinculcatedobediencetotheestablishedlaws,itwasnodoubtpartlyongroundsofenlightenedself-interest,butalsobecauseunionandharmonyamongcitizensweretherebysecured.Andifheinsistedonthenecessityofformingdefiniteconceptions,itwaswiththesametwofoldreferencetopersonalandpublicadvantage.Alongwiththediffusive,socialcharacterofmindherecogniseditsessentialspontaneity.Inacommonwealthwhereallcitizenswerefreeandequal,theremustalsobefreedomandequalityofreason.Havingworkedoutatheoryoflifeforhimself,he138desiredthatallothermenshould,sofaraspossible,passthroughthesamebracingdiscipline.Herewehavethesecretofhisfamouseroteticmethod.Hedidnot,liketheSophists,givecontinuouslectures,norprofess,likesomeofthem,toanswereveryquestionthatmightbeputtohim.Onthecontrary,heputaseriesofquestionstoallwhocameinhisway,generallyintheformofanalternative,onesideofwhichseemedself-evidentlytrueandtheotherself-evidentlyfalse,arrangedsoastoleadtherespondent,stepbystep,totheconclusionwhichitwasdesiredthatheshouldaccept.Socratesdidnotinventthismethod.IthadlongbeenpractisedintheAthenianlaw-courtsasameansforextractingfromtheoppositepartyadmissionswhichcouldnotbeotherwiseobtained,whenceithadpassedintothetragicdrama,andintothediscussionofphilosophicalproblems.NowhereelsewastheanalyticalpowerofGreekthoughtsobrilliantlydisplayed;forbeforeacontestedpropositioncouldbesubjectedtothismodeoftreatment,ithadtobecarefullydiscriminatedfromconfusingadjuncts,consideredunderallthevariousmeaningswhichitmightpossiblybemadetobear,subdivided,ifitwascomplex,intotwoormoredistinctassertions,andlinkedbyaminutechainofdemonstrationtotheadmissionbywhichitsvaliditywasestablishedoroverthrown.

  • 绿卡纸t9ank

    Ithas,untillately,beencustomarytospeakasifallthatAristotleknewaboutinductionwascontainedinafewscatteredpassageswhereitismentionedunderthatnameintheAnalytics.This,nodoubt,istrue,ifbyinductionwemeansimplegeneralisation.Butifweunderstandbyitthephilosophyofexperimentalevidence—theanalysisofthosemeansbywhich,intheabsenceofdirectobservation,wedecidebetweentwoconflictinghypotheses—thentheTopicsmustbepronouncedasgoodadiscussiononthesubjectaswascompatiblewithhisgeneraltheoryofknowledge.Forhesupposesthattherearelargeclassesofphenomena,including,amongotherthings,thewholerangeofhumanlife,which,notbeingboundbyanyfixedorder,lieoutsidethescopeofscientificdemonstration,althoughcapableofbeingdeterminedwithvariousdegreesofprobability;andherealsowhathehasinviewisnotthediscoveryoflaws,buttheconstructionofdefinitions.Thesebeingamatterofopinion,couldalwaysbeattackedaswellasmaintained.Thustheconstantconflictandbalancingofoppositeforces,whichwehavelearnedtoassociatewiththesublunarysphere,hasitslogicalrepresentativenolessthanthekindredideasofuncertaintyandvicissitude.And,inconnexionwiththissideofappliedlogic,Aristotlehasalsotoconsidertherequirementsofthosewhotookpartinthepublicdebatesondisputedquestions,thenverycommonamongeducatedAthenians,andfrequentlyturningonverbaldefinitions.Hence,whilewefindmanyvarietiesofreasoningsuggested,suchasReasoningbyAnalogy,DisjunctiveReasoning,HypotheticalReasoning(thoughwithoutageneralisedexpressionforallitsvarieties),and,whatismostremarkable,threeoutofMill’sfourExperimentalMethods,288wedonotfindthatanyinterestingor395usefulapplicationismadeofthem.Evenconsideredasahandbookfordebaters,theTopicsisnotsuccessful.Withthepracticalincompetenceofamerenaturalist,Aristotlehassuppliedheadsforargumentsinsuchprofusionandsuchuttercarelessnessoftheirrelativeimportancethatnomemorycouldsustaintheburden,exceptintheprobablyrareinstanceswhenalifetimewasdevotedtotheirstudy.

     CHAPTERIV.THERELIGIOUSREVIVAL.

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