一图读懂高峰林场2020年党建和党风廉政工作

G27a0-news 发布时间: 2020-07-15 07:42:01

“幸 运 飞 艇 总 和 赌 法”CloselyconnectedwiththematerialismoftheStoics,andequallyadversetotheprinciplesofPlatoandAristotle,wastheirfatalism.Inoppositiontothis,Plotinusproceedstodevelopthespiritualisticdoctrineoffree-will.438Inthepreviousdiscussion,wehadtonoticehowcloselyhisargumentsresemblethoseemployedbymoremoderncontroversialists.Wehaveheretopointoutnolesswideadifferencebetweenthetwo.Insteadofpresentingfree-willasafactofconsciousnesswhichisitselfirreconcilablewiththedependenceofmentalonmaterialchanges,ourphilosopher,conversely,infersthatthesoulmustbefreebothfromtheconditionsofmechanicalcausationandfromthegeneralinterdependenceofnaturalforces,becauseitisanindividualsubstance.439Intruth,thephenomenaofvolitionwerehandledbytheancientphilosopherswithavaguenessandafeeblenessofferingthemostsingularcontrasttotheirpowerfulanddiscriminatinggraspofotherpsychologicalproblems.Ofnecessarianism,inthemodernsense,theyhadnoidea.Aristotlefailedtoseethat,quiteapartfromexternalrestraints,ourchoicemayconceivablybedeterminedwiththeutmostrigourbyaninternalmotive;norcouldheunderstandthatthecircumstanceswhichmakeamanresponsibleforhisactionsdonotamounttoareleaseofhisconductfromthelawofuniversalcausation.Inthisrespect,Platosawsomewhatdeeperthanhisdisciple,butcreated298freshconfusionbyidentifyingfreedomwiththesupremacyofreasonoverirrationaldesire.440PlotinusgenerallyadoptsthePlatonistpointofview.Accordingtothis,thesoulisfreewhensheisextricatedfromthebondsofmatter,anddeterminedsolelybytheconditionsofherspiritualexistence.Thusvirtueisnotsomuchfreeasidenticalwithfreedom;while,contrariwise,vicemeansenslavementtotheaffectionsofthebody,andthereforecomesunderthedomainofmaterialcausation.441Yet,again,incriticisingthefatalistictheorieswhichrepresenthumanactionsasentirelypredeterminedbydivineprovidence,heprotestsagainsttheascriptionofsomuchthatiseviltosogoodasource,andinsiststhatatleastthebadactionsofmenareduetotheirownfreechoice.442

ThetreatmentofthepassionsbytheStoicschoolpresentsgreaterdifficulties,duepartlytotheirownvacillation,partlytotheveryindefinitenatureofthefeelingsinquestion.Itwillbeadmittedthatherealsotheclaimsofdutyaresupreme.Tofollowthepromptingsoffearorofanger,ofpityoroflove,withoutconsideringtheulteriorconsequencesofouraction,is,ofcourse,wrong.Forevenif,inanyparticularinstance,noharmcomesoftheconcession,wecannotbesurethatsuchwillalwaysbethecase;andmeanwhilethepassionis23strengthenedbyindulgence.Andwehavealsotoconsiderthebadeffectproducedonthecharacterofthosewho,findingthemselvestheobjectofpassion,learntoaddressthemselvestoitinsteadoftoreason.Difficultiesarisewhenwebegintoconsiderhowfareducationshouldaimatthesystematicdiscouragementofstrongemotion.HeretheStoicsseemtohavetakenupapositionnotveryconsistenteitherwiththeirappealstoNatureorwiththeirteleologicalassumptions.Nothingstrikesoneasmoreunnaturalthanthecompleteabsenceofhumanfeeling;andabelieverindesignmightplausiblymaintainthateveryemotionconducedtothepreservationeitheroftheindividualoroftherace.Wefind,however,thattheStoics,hereaselsewherereversingtheAristotelianmethod,wouldnotadmittheexistenceofapsychologicaldistinctionbetweenreasonandpassion.Accordingtotheiranalysis,theemotionsaresomanydifferentformsofjudgment.Joyandsorrowarefalseopinionsrespectinggoodandevilinthepresent:desireandfear,falseopinionsrespectinggoodandevilinthefuture.53But,grantingarighteouswilltobetheonlygood,anditsabsencetheonlyevil,therecanbenoroomforanyofthesefeelingsinthemindofatrulyvirtuousman,sincehisopinionsonthesubjectofgoodarecorrect,anditspossessiondependsentirelyonhimself.Everythingelsearisesfromanexternalnecessity,tostrivewithwhichwouldbeuselessbecauseitisinevitable,foolishbecauseitisbeneficent,andimpiousbecauseitissupremelywise.

enwrapt,thelightningwieldest;

Itwasnaturalthatonewhounitedagreatintellecttoaglowingtemperamentshouldturnhisthoughtstopoetry.Platowroteaquantityofverses—verse-makinghadbecomefashionablejustthen—butwiselycommittedthemtotheflamesonmakingtheacquaintanceofSocrates.ItmaywellbedoubtedwhethertheauthorofthePhaedrusandtheSymposiumwouldeverhaveattainedeminenceinmetricalcomposition,evenhadhelivedinanagefarmorefavourabletopoeticinspirationthanthatwhichcameafterthefloweringtimeofAtticart.ItseemsasifPlato,withallhisfervour,fancy,anddramaticskill,lackedthemostessentialqualityofasinger;hisfinestpassagesareonalevelwiththehighestpoetry,andyettheyareseparatedfromitbyachasmmoreeasilyfeltthandescribed.Aristotle,whomwethinkofashardanddryandcold,sometimescomesmuchnearertothetruelyriccry.And,asiftomarkoutPlato’sstylestillmoredistinctlyfromeveryother,itisalsodeficientinoratoricalpower.Thephilosopherevidentlythoughtthathecouldbeattherhetoriciansontheirownground;iftheMenexenusbegenuine,hetriedtodosoandfailed;andevenwithoutits191testimonyweareentitledtosayasmuchonthestrengthofshorterattempts.Wemusteventakeleavetodoubtwhetherdialogue,properlysocalled,wasPlato’sforte.WhereonespeakerisplacedatsuchaheightabovetheothersasSocrates,ortheEleaticStranger,ortheAthenianintheLaws,therecannotbeanyrealconversation.Theotherinterlocutorsaregoodlisteners,andservetobreakthemonotonyofacontinuousexpositionbytheirexpressionsofassentorevenbytheiroccasionalinabilitytofollowtheargument,butgivenorealhelporstimulus.Andwhenallowedtoofferanopinionoftheirown,they,too,lapseintoamonologue,addressed,asoursilenttrainsofthoughthabituallyare,toanimaginaryauditorwhosesympathyandsupportarenecessarybutarealsosecure.YetifPlato’sstyleisneitherexactlypoetical,nororatorical,norconversational,ithasaffinitieswitheachofthesethreevarieties;itrepresentsthecommonrootfromwhichtheyspring,andbringsus,betterthananyotherspeciesofcomposition,intoimmediatecontactwiththemindofthewriter.ThePlatonicSocrateshaseyeslikethoseofaportraitwhichfollowuswhereverweturn,andthroughwhichwecanreadhisinmostsoul,whichisnootherthantheuniversalreasonofhumanityinthedelightedsurpriseofitsfirstawakeningtoself-consciousactivity.Thepoetthinksandfeelsforus;theoratormakesourthoughtsandfeelingshisown,andthenrestoresthemtousinaconcentratedform,‘receivinginvapourwhathegivesbackinaflood.’Platoremoveseveryobstacletothefreedevelopmentofourfaculties;heteachesusbyhisownexamplehowtothinkandtofeelforourselves.IfSocratespersonifiedphilosophy,Platohasreproducedthepersonificationinartisticformwithsuchmasterlyeffectthatitsinfluencehasbeenextendedthroughallagesandoverthewholecivilisedworld.Thisportraitstandsasanintermediarybetweenitsoriginalandthefar-reachingeffectsindirectlyduetohisdialecticinspiration,likethatuniversalsoulwhichPlatohimselfhasplacedbetween192thesupremeartificerandthematerialworld,thatitmightbringthefleetingcontentsofspaceandtimeintoharmonywithuncreatedandeverlastingideas.

ThegreatestofRomanoratorsandwriterswasalsothefirstRomanthatheldopinionsofhisowninphilosophy.Howmuchoriginalthoughtoccursinhisvoluminouscontributionstotheliteratureofthesubjectismorethanwecandetermine,theGreekauthoritiesonwhichhedrewbeingknownalmostexclusivelythroughthereferencestothemcontainedinhisdisquisitions.But,judgingfromtheevidencebeforeus,carefullysiftedasithasbeenbyGermanscholars,weshouldfeeldisposedtoassignhimaforemostrankamongthethinkersofanagecertainlynotdistinguishedeitherforfertilityorfordepthofthought.Itseemsclearthathegaveanewbasistotheeclectictendenciesofhiscontemporaries,andthatthisbasiswassubsequentlyacceptedbyotherphilosopherswhosespeculativecapacityhasneverbeenquestioned.CicerodescribeshimselfasanadherentoftheNewAcademy,andexpresslyclaimstohavereasserteditsprinciplesaftertheyhadfallenintoneglectamongtheGreeks,moreparticularlyasagainsthisownoldmasterAntiochus,whoseStoicisingtheoryofcognitionheagreeswithPhiloinrepudiating.269LikePhiloalso,hebasescertaintyonthetwofoldgroundofamoralnecessityforactingonourbeliefs,270andtheexistenceofmoralintuitions,ornaturaltendenciestobelieveintheminditself;271or,perhaps,moreproperlyspeaking,onthesinglegroundofamoralsense.This,asalreadystated,wasunquestionablyareproductionofthePlatonicideasundertheirsubjectiveaspect.Butinhisgeneralviewsaboutthenatureandlimits171ofhumanknowledge,CiceroleavestheAcademybehindhim,andgoesbacktoSocrates.Perhapsnotwomenofgreatgeniuscouldbemoreunlikethanthesetwo,—forusthemostlivingfiguresinancienthistoryifnotinallhistory,—theRomanbeingasmuchatypeoftime-servingnessandvacillationastheAthenianwasofconsistencyandresoluteindependence.Yet,initsmereexternalresults,thephilosophyofSocratesisperhapsmorefaithfullyreproducedbyCicerothanbyanysubsequentenquirer;andthedifferencesbetweenthemareeasilyaccountedforbythelongintervalseparatingtheiragesfromoneanother.Eachsetoutwiththesameeagerdesiretocollectknowledgefromeveryquarter;eachsoughtaboveallthingsforthatkindofknowledgewhichseemedtobeofthegreatestpracticalimportance;andeachwasledtobelievethatthisdidnotincludespeculationsrelatingtothephysicalworld;onegreatmotivetothepartialscepticismprofessedbybothbeingtheirreconcilabledisagreementofthosewhohadattemptedanexplanationofitsmysteries.Thedeepergroundofman’signoranceinthisrespectwasstatedsomewhatdifferentlybyeach;orperhapsweshouldsaythatthesamereasonisexpressedinamythicalformbytheoneandinascientificformbytheother.Socratesheldthatthenatureofthingsisasecretwhichthegodshavereservedforthemselves;while,inCicero’sopinion,theheavensaresoremote,theinterioroftheearthsodark,themechanismofourownbodiessocomplicatedandsubtle,astobeplacedbeyondthereachoffruitfulobservation.272Nordidthisdeprivationseemanygreathardshiptoeither,since,ascitizensofgreatandfreestates,bothwerepre-eminentlyinterestedinthestudyofsociallife;anditischaracteristicoftheircommontendencythatbothshouldhavebeennotonlygreattalkersandobserversbutalsogreatreadersofancientliterature.273

ThescepticismofAristippusandtheCyrenaicsmediatedbetweentheviewsofProtagorasandthoseofGorgias,whilemarkinganadvanceonboth.Accordingtothisschool,weknownothingbeyondourownfeelings,anditmustbeleftundecidedwhethertheyarecausedbyanexternalrealityornot.Norcanthefeelingsofoneindividualjustifyusinreasoningtotheexistenceofsimilarfeelingsinthemindofanotherindividual.221Itmightbeobjectedthattheargumentsadvancedinsupportofthelatterassertionaresuicidal,fortheyarederivedfromtheabnormalstatesofconsciousnessaccompanyingparticulardiseases,orelsefromthedivergencesoftasteexhibitedbydifferentindividualsevenwheningoodhealth,—anapparentadmissionthatwearesufficientlywellacquaintedwiththephenomenainquestiontoinstituteacomparisonbetweenthem,which,byhypothesis,isimpossible.Andthisis,infact,themethodbywhichMr.HerbertSpencerhasendeavouredtoupsetthewholetheoryofsubjectiveidealism,asinvolvingateverystepanassumptionoftheveryrealitiesthatitprofessestodeny.ButtheCyrenaicandthemodernidealisthaveaperfectrighttoshowthattheassumptionsoftheiradversariesareself-contradictory;andthereadiestwayofsodoingistoreasonfromthemasiftheyweretrue.Therealanswertothatextremeformofidealismwhichdeniesthepossibilityofmakingknownourfeelingstoeachotheristhat,ourbodiesbeingsimilarlyconstructedandrespondingtosimilarimpressionsbysimilarmanifestations,133IhavethesamesortofwarrantforassumingthatyourstatesofconsciousnessarelikeminethatIhaveforassumingyoutoexistatall.Theinferencemust,ofcourse,besurroundedbyproperprecautions,suchasareseldomusedbyunscientificreasoners.Wemustmakesurethatthestructureisthesameandthattheexcitementisthesame,orthattheirdifferences,ifany,areinsignificant,beforewecanattributethesamevaluetothesamemanifestationsoffeelingonthepartofdifferentpersons;butthatthiscanbedone,atleastinthecaseoftheelementarysensations,isshownbytheeasydetectionofsuchanomaliesascolour-blindnesswheretheyexist.

ItisremarkablethatwhileSpinozawasgivinganewapplicationtothePlatonicmethod,anotherCartesian,414Malebranche,wasworkingitoutmorestrictlyontheoldlinesofspeculativeresearch.TheRecherchedelaVéritéofthisunjustlyneglectedthinkerisamethodicalaccountofthevarioussubjectiveobstacleswhichimpedeourapprehensionofthingsastheyreallyexist,andofthemeansbywhichitmaybefacilitated.Herealso,attentionisconcentratedonthesubjectivesideofphilosophy;andifthementalprocessesselectedforstudyareoftheoreticalratherthanpracticalinterest,wemayprobablyattributethistothecircumstancethateveryethicalquestionwasalreadydecidedforMalebranchebytheChurchwhoseordershehadassumed.

WenowpasstotheconsiderationofAristotle’smostimportantachievement—hissystemoflogic.Andas,herealso,weshallfindmuchtocriticise,itisaswelltobeginbysayingthat,inouropinion,hiscontributionstothesciencearethemostvaluableevermade,andperhapshavedonemoretoadvanceitthanallotherwritingsonthesamesubjectputtogether.ButbeforethedissolvingactionofNominalismhadbecomefullymanifest,itsascendencywasoncemorechallenged;andthistime,also,thephilosophicalimpulsecamefromConstantinople.Greekscholars,seekinghelpintheWest,broughtwiththemtoFlorencethecompleteworksofPlato;andthesewereshortlymadeaccessibletoawiderpublicthroughtheLatintranslationofFicino.Theirinfluenceseemsatfirsttohavetoldinfavourofmysticism,forthiswasthecontemporarytendencytowhichtheycouldbemostreadilyaffiliated;and,besides,inswingingbackfromAristotle’sphilosophytotherivalformofspiritualism,men’smindsnaturallyreverted,inthefirstinstance,towhathadoncelinkedthemtogether—thesystemofPlotinus.ThusPlatonismwasstudiedthroughanAlexandrianmedium,andastheAlexandrianshadlookedatit,thatistosay,chieflyunderitstheologicalandmetaphysicalaspects.Assuch,itbecametheacceptedphilosophyoftheRenaissance;369andmuchofwhatwemostadmireintheliterature—atleasttheEnglishliterature—ofthatperiod,isdirectlytraceabletoPlatonicinfluence.ThattheUtopiaofSirThomasMorewasinspiredbytheRepublicandtheCritiasis,ofcourse,obvious;andthegreatpartplayedbytheidealtheoryinSpenser’sFaeryQueen,thoughlessevident,isstillsufficientlyclear.AsMr.GreenobservesinhisHistoryoftheEnglishPeople(II.,p.413),‘Spenserborrows,infact,thedelicateandrefinedformsofthePlatonicphilosophytoexpresshisownmoralenthusiasm....Justice,Temperance,Trutharenomerenamestohim,butrealexistencestowhichhiswholenatureclingswitharapturousaffection.’Nowitdeservesobservation,asillustratingagreatrevolutioninEuropeanthought,thattherelationofPlatototheepicoftheEnglishRenaissanceispreciselyparalleledbytherelationofAristotletotheepicofmediaevalItaly.DanteborrowsmorethanhiscosmographyfromtheStagirite.ThesuccessivecirclesofHell,thespiralsofPurgatory,andthespheresofParadise,areaframeworkinwhichthecharactersofthepoemareexhibited,notasindividualactorswhomwetracethroughalife’shistory,butastypesofaclassandrepresentativesofasinglementalquality,whetherviciousorvirtuous.Inotherwords,thehistoricalarrangementofallpreviouspoemsisabandonedinfavourofalogicalarrangement.Fortheorderofcontiguityintimeissubstitutedtheorderofresemblanceanddifferenceinidea.HowthoroughlyAristotelian,indeed,werethelineswithinwhichmediaevalimaginationmovedisprovedbythepossibilityoftracingtheminaworkutterlydifferentfromDante’s—theDecameronofBoccaccio.Thetalesconstitutingthiscollectionaresoarrangedthateachdayillustratessomeonespecialclassofadventures;only,tomakegoodAristotle’sprinciplethatearthlyaffairsarenotsubjecttoinvariablerules,asingledeparturefromtheprescribedsubjectisallowedineachdecade;while370duringoneentiredaythestory-tellersareleftfreetochooseasubjectattheirowndiscretion.

III.

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  • 雨花郡主znaNQ

    Outofthiseternalunchangingdivinesubstance,whichhecallsaether,areformedtheheavenlybodiesandthetransparentspherescontainingthem.Butthereissomethingbeyonditofanevenhigherandpurernature.Aristotleproves,withgreatsubtlety,fromhisfundamentalassumptions,thatthemovementofanextendedsubstancecannotbeself-caused.Healsoprovesthatmotionmustbeabsolutelycontinuousandwithoutabeginning.Wehave,therefore,nochoicebuttoaccepttheexistenceofanunextended,immaterial,eternal,andinfinitePoweronwhichthewholecosmosdepends.

     StillmoreimportantwastheantithesisbetweenNatureandconvention,which,sofarasweknow,originatedexclusivelywithHippias.Wehavealreadyobservedthatuniversalityandnecessitywere,withtheGreeks,standingmarksofnaturalness.Thecustomsofdifferentcountrieswere,ontheotherhand,distinguishedbyextremevariety,amountingsometimestodiametricalopposition.Herodotuswasfondofcallingattentiontosuchcontrasts;only,hedrewfromthemtheconclusionthatlaw,tobesoarbitrary,mustneedspossesssupremeandsacredauthority.AccordingtothemoreplausibleinterpretationofHippias,thevariety,andatleastinGreekdemocracies,thechangeabilityoflawprovedthatitwasneithersacrednorbinding.Healsolookedonartificialsocialinstitutionsasthesolecauseofdivisionanddiscordamongmankind.HerewealreadyseethedawnofacosmopolitanismafterwardspreachedbyCynicand82Stoicphilosophers.Furthermore,todiscoverthenaturalruleofright,hecomparedthelawsofdifferentnations,andselectedthosewhichwereheldbyallincommonasthebasisofanethicalsystem.63Now,thisispreciselywhatwasdonebytheRomanjuristslongafterwardsundertheinspirationofStoicalteaching.WehaveitonthehighauthorityofSirHenryMainethattheyidentifiedtheJusGentium,thatis,thelawssupposedtobeobservedbyallnationsalike,withtheJusNaturale,thatis,thecodebywhichmenweregovernedintheirprimitiveconditionofinnocence.Itwasbyagradualapplicationofthisidealstandardthatthenumerousinequalitiesbetweendifferentclassesofpersons,enforcedbyancientRomanlaw,wereremoved,andthatcontractwassubstitutedforstatus.Aboveall,theabolitionofslaverywas,ifnotdirectlycaused,atanyratepowerfullyaided,bythebeliefthatitwasagainstNature.AtthebeginningofthefourteenthcenturywefindLouisHutin,KingofFrance,assigningasareasonfortheenfranchisementofhisserfs,that,‘accordingtonaturallaw,everybodyoughttobebornfree,’andalthoughSirH.Maineholdsthistohavebeenamistakeninterpretationofthejuridicalaxiom‘omneshominesnaturaaequalessunt,’whichmeansnotanidealtobeattained,butaprimitiveconditionfromwhichwehavedeparted:neverthelessitveryfaithfullyreproducesthetheoryofthoseGreekphilosophersfromwhomtheideaofanaturallawwasderived.That,inAristotle’stimeatleast,apartyexistedwhowereopposedtoslaveryontheoreticalgroundsofrightisperfectlyevidentfromthelanguageofthePolitics.‘Somepersons,’saysAristotle,‘thinkthatslave-holdingisagainstnature,forthatonemanisaslaveandanotherfreebylaw,whilebynaturethereisnodifferencebetweenthem,forwhichreasonitisunjustasbeingtheresultofforce.’64Andheproceedstoprovethecontraryatlength.Thesamedoctrineofnaturalequalityledtoimportantpoliticalconsequences,having,againaccordingtoSir83H.Maine,contributedbothtotheAmericanDeclarationofIndependenceandtotheFrenchRevolution.

  • 雪灵芝NGiBW

    III.

  • 如萱紫儿mbROu

  • 但法国IavLj

    Beforetheideaswhichwehavepassedinreviewcouldgoforthontheirworld-conqueringmission,itwasnecessary,notonlythatSocratesshoulddie,butthathisphilosophyshoulddiealso,bybeingabsorbedintothemoresplendidgeneralisationsofPlato’ssystem.Thatsystemhas,forsometimepast,beenmadeanobjectofclosestudyinourmostfamousseatsoflearning,andacertainacquaintancewithithasalmostbecomepartofaliberaleducationinEngland.No170bettersourceofinspiration,combinedwithdiscipline,couldbefound;butweshallunderstandandappreciatePlatostillbetterbyfirstextricatingthenucleusroundwhichhisspeculationshavegatheredinsuccessivedeposits,andthiswecanonlydowiththehelpofXenophon,whoselittleworkalsowelldeservesattentionforthesakeofitsownchasteandcandidbeauty.TherelationinwhichitstandstothePlatonicwritingsmaybesymbolisedbyanexamplefamiliartotheexperienceofeverytraveller.Assometimes,invisitingaGothiccathedral,weareledthroughthewondersofthemoremodernedifice—undersoaringarches,overtesselatedpavements,andbetweenlongrowsofclusteredcolumns,pastfrescoedwalls,storiedwindows,carvenpulpits,andsepulchralmonuments,withtheirendlesswealthofmythologicimagery—downintotheoldestportionofany,thebaresterncrypt,severewiththesimplicityofearlyart,restingonpillarstakenfromanancienttemple,andenclosingthetombofsomemartyredsaint,towhoseglorifiedspiritanofficeofperpetualintercessionbeforethemercy-seatisassigned,andinwhosehonourallthatexternalmagnificencehasbeenpiledup;soalsowepassthroughthemanifoldandmarvellousconstructionsofPlato’simaginationtothatausterememorialwhereXenophonhasenshrinedwithpiouscare,underthegreatprimarydivisionsofoldHellenicvirtue,anauthenticreliquaryofonestandingforemostamongthosewho,havingworkedouttheirowndeliverancefromthepowersoferrorandevil,wouldnotbesavedalone,butpublishedthesecretofredemptionthoughdeathwerethepenaltyofitsdisclosure;andwho,bytheirtransmittedinfluence,evenmorethanbytheireternalexample,arestillcontributingtotheprogressivedevelopmentofallthatismostrational,mostconsistent,mostsocial,andthereforemosttrulyhumaninourselves.

     

  • 大笨蛋wF4nL

    v

  • 扒皮成Ptvu1

    Again,Platoisfalsetohisownrulewhenheselectshisphilosophicgovernorsoutofthemilitarycaste.Ifthesameindividualcanbeawarriorinhisyouthandanadministrator255inhisriperyears,onemancandotwothingswell,thoughnotatthesametime.Ifthesamepersoncanbebornwiththequalificationsbothofasoldierandofapolitician,andcanbefittedbyeducationforeachcallinginsuccession,surelyamuchgreaternumbercancombinethefunctionsofamanuallabourerwiththoseofanelector.WhatpreventedPlatofromperceivingthisobviousparallelwasthetraditionofthepaterfamiliaswhohadalwaysbeenawarriorinhisyouth;andacommendableanxietytokeepthearmycloselyconnectedwiththecivilpower.Theanalogiesofdomesticlifehavealsoagreatdealtodowithhisproposedcommunityofwomenandchildren.Insteadofundervaluingthefamilyaffections,heimmenselyovervaluedthem;asisshownbyhissuppositionthatthebondsofconsanguinitywouldpreventdissensionsfromarisingamonghiswarriors.Heshouldhaveknownthatmanyahomeisthesceneofconstantwrangling,andthatquarrelsbetweenkinsfolkarethebitterestofany.Then,lookingontheStateasagreatschool,Platoimaginedthattheobedience,docility,andcredulityofyoungscholarscouldbekeptupthroughalifetime;thatfull-growncitizenswouldswallowtheabsurdestinventions;andthatmiddle-agedofficerscouldbesentintoretirementforseveralyearstostudydialectic.Tosupposethatstatesmenmustnecessarilybeformedbythedisciplineinquestionisanotherscholastictrait.Theprofessionalteacherattributesfarmorepracticalimportancetohisabstruserlessonsthantheyreallypossess.Heisnotcontenttowaitfortheindirectinfluencewhichtheymayexertatsomeremoteperiodandincombinationwithforcesofperhapsawidelydifferentcharacter.Helooksforimmediateandtellingresults.Heimaginesthatthehighesttruthmusthaveamysteriouspoweroftransformingallthingsintoitsownlikeness,oratleastofmakingitslearnersmorecapablethanothermenofdoingtheworld’swork.HerealsoPlato,insteadofbeingtoological,wasnotlogical256enough.Byfollowingoutthelawsofeconomy,asappliedtomentallabour,hemighthavearrivedattheseparationofthespiritualandtemporalpowers,andthusanticipatedthebestestablishedsocialdoctrineofourtime.

     Itwasnaturalthatthebestmethodsofinterpretingsousefulasourceofinformationshouldbegreatlysoughtafter,andthattheyshouldbesystematisedintreatisesexpresslydevotedtothesubject.Onesuchwork,theOneirocriticaofArtemid?rus,isstillextant.Itwascomposedtowardstheendofthesecondcentury,asitsauthortellsus,atthedirectandrepeatedcommandofApollo.AccordingtoArtemid?rus,thegeneralbeliefinprophecyandintheexistenceofprovidencemuststandorfallwiththebeliefinpropheticdreams.Helookedonthecompilationofhisworkasthefulfilmentofareligiousmission,andhiswholelifewasdevotedtocollectingthematerialsforit.Hisgoodfaithis,wearetold,beyondquestion,hisindustryisenormous,andheevenexercisesconsiderablediscriminationinselectingandelucidatingthephenomenawhicharerepresentedtousas229manifestationsofasupernaturalinterestinhumanaffairs.Thushisbeliefsmaybetakenasafairgaugeoftheextenttowhicheducatedopinionhadatthattimebecomeinfectedwithvulgarsuperstition.351

  • 草莓果jYema

     WearenowinapositiontounderstandthefullforceofDescartes’Cogitoergosum.Itexpressesthesubstantialityofself-consciousForm,theequalclaimofthoughtwithextensiontoberecognisedasanelementoftheuniverse.Thisrecognitionofself-consciousnessasthesurestrealitywas,indeed,farfrombeingnew.TheGreekScepticshadnevergonetothelengthofdoubtingtheirownpersonalexistence.Onthecontrary,theyprofessedasortofsubjectiveidealism.Refusingtogobeyondtheirownconsciousness,theyfoundinitsundisturbedself-possessiontheonlyabsolutesatisfactionthatlifecouldafford.Butknowledgeandrealityhadbecomesointimatelyassociatedwithsomethingindependentofmind,andminditselfwithamerereflectionofreality,thatthedenialofanexternalworld393seemedtothevulgaradenialofexistenceitself.AndalthoughAristotlehadfoundthehighest,ifnotthesoleabsoluteactualityinself-thinkingthought,heprojectedittosuchadistancefromhumanpersonalitythatitsbearingonthescepticalcontroversyhadpassedunperceived.Descartesbeganhisdemonstrationatthepointwherealltheancientsystemshadconverged,butfailedtodiscoverinwhatdirectiontheconditionsoftheproblemrequiredthattheyshouldbeprolonged.NomistakecanbegreaterthantoregardhimastheprecursorofGermanphilosophy.Thelatteroriginatedquiteindependentlyofhisteaching,thoughnotperhapsofhisexample,inthecombinationofamuchprofounderscepticismwithamuchwiderknowledgeofdogmaticmetaphysics.Hismethodistheveryreverseoftrueidealism.TheCogitoergosumisnotatakingupofexistenceintothought,butratheraconversionofthoughtintooneparticulartypeofexistence.Now,aswehaveseen,allotherexistencewasconceivedasextension,andhowevercarefullythoughtmightbedistinguishedfromthisasabsolutelyindivisible,itwasspeedilyreducedtothesamegeneralpatternofinclusion,limitation,andexpansion.WhereasKant,Fichte,andHegelafterwardsdweltontheformofthought,Descartesattendedonlytoitscontent,ortothatinwhichitwascontained.Inotherwords,hebeganbyconsideringnothowhethoughtbutwhathethoughtandwhenceitcame—hisideasandtheirsupposedderivationfromahighersphere.Take,forexample,histwogreatmethodsforprovingtheexistenceofGod.Wehaveinourmindstheideaofaperfectbeing—atleastDescartesprofessedtohavesuchanideainhismind,—andwe,asimperfectbeings,couldnothaveoriginateditforourselves.Itmust,therefore,havebeenplacedtherebyaperfectbeingactingonusfromwithout.Itisheretakenforgrantedthatthemechanicalequivalencebetweenmaterialeffectsandtheircausesmustobtaininaworldwherespatialrelations,andthereforemeasurement,arepresumably394unknown.And,secondly,existence,asaperfection,isinvolvedintheideaofaperfectbeing;thereforesuchabeingcanonlybeconceivedasexisting.Herethereseemstobeaconfusednotionthatbecausethepropertiesofageometricalfigurecanbededucedfromitsdefinition,thereforetheexistenceofsomethingmorethanasimpleideacanbededucedfromthedefinitionofthatideaitself.Butbesidesthemathematicalinfluence,therewasevidentlyaPlatonicinfluenceatwork;andoneisremindedofPlato’sargumentthatthesoulcannotdiebecauseitparticipatesintheideaoflife.SuchfallacieswereimpossiblesolongasAristotle’slogiccontinuedtobecarefullystudied,andtheygraduallydisappearedwithitsrevival.Meanwhilethecatwasaway,andthemiceusedtheiropportunity.

  • 绿卡纸gfJbg

     

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