栗战书同老挝国会主席巴妮举行会谈

ohgaI-news 发布时间: 2020-07-12 08:24:13

“分分彩实力上岸”IV.

SomuchonlyisestablishedinthePhysics.FurtherparticularsaregiveninthetwelfthbookoftheMetaphysics.Therewelearnthat,allmovementbeingfrompossibilitytoactuality,thesourceofmovementmustbeacompletelyrealisedactuality—pureformwithoutanyadmixtureofmatter.Butthehighestformknowntousintheascendingscaleoforganiclifeisthehumansoul,andthehighestfunctionofsoulisreason.Reasonthenmustbethatwhichmoveswithoutbeingmoveditself,drawingallthingsupwardsandonwardsbythelovewhichitsperfectioninspires.Theeternal,infinite,absoluteactualityexistingbeyondtheoutermoststarrysphereisGod.AristotledescribesGodasthethoughtwhichthinksitselfandfindsinthesimpleactofself-consciousnessaneverlastinghappiness,wonderfulifitalwaysequalsthebestmomentsofourmortallife,morewonderfulstillifitsurpassesthem.ThereisonlyonesupremeGod,forpluralityisduetoanadmixtureofmatter,andHeispureform.Theruleofmanyisnotgood,asHomersays.LettherebeoneLord.

AndwhilebothlightanddarknessservemankindAgain,thespiritualismtaughtbyPlatoandAristotlealike—bythedisciple,indeed,withevenmoredistinctnessthanbythemaster—wassoentirelyinconsistentwiththecommonbeliefofantiquityastoremainadeadletterfornearlysixcenturies—thatis,untilthetimeofPlotinus.Thedifferencebetweenbodyandmindwasrecognisedbyeveryschool,butonlyasthedifferencebetweensolidandgaseousmatterisrecognisedbyus;whiletheantithesisbetweenconsciousandunconsciousexistence,withallitsmomentousconsequences,wasrecognisedbynone.Theoldhypothesishadtobethoroughlythoughtoutbeforeitsinsufficiencycouldbecompletelyandirrevocablyconfessed.

TheOnecannot,properlyspeaking,beanobjectofknowledge,butisapprehendedbysomethinghigherthanknowledge.ThisiswhyPlatocallsitineffableandindescribable.Whatwecandescribeisthewaytotheview,nottheviewitself.Thesoulwhichhasneverbeenirradiatedwiththelightofthatsupremesplendour,norfilledwiththepassionatejoyofaloverfindingrestinthecontemplationofhisbeloved,cannotbegiventhatexperienceinwords.Butthebeatificvisionisopentoall.Hefromwhomitishiddenhasonlyhimselftoblame.Lethimbreakawayfromtherestraintsofsenseandplacehimselfundertheguidanceofphilosophy,thatphilosophywhichleadsfrommattertospirit,fromsoultoNous,fromNoustotheOne.

withhonourmayrepayThee,

AndboundedroundbystrongNecessity.

Aftereliminatingallthesourcesofmiseryduetofollyandvice,Epicurushadstilltodealwithwhat,inhisopinion,werethemostformidableobstaclestohumanhappiness,dreadofthedivineangeranddreadofdeath,eitherinitself,orastheentranceonanotherlife.Tomeetthese,hecompiled,forwecanhardlysayconstructed,anelaboratesystemofphysicalphilosophy,havingforitsobjecttoshowthatNatureisentirelygovernedbymechanicalcauses,andthatthesoulperisheswiththebody.Wehavealreadymentionedthatforscienceassuchandapartfromitsethicalapplicationsheneithercarednorpretendedtocareintheleast.Itseems,therefore,rathersurprisingthathecouldnotmanage,liketheScepticsbeforehim,togetridofsupernaturalismbyasomewhatmoreexpeditiousmethod.Theexplanationseemstobethattogivesomeaccountofnaturalphenomenahadbecome,inhistime,anecessityforeveryoneaspiringtofoundaphilosophicalsystem.AbrilliantexamplehadbeensetbyPlatoandAristotle,ofwhomtheformer,too,hadapparentlyyieldedtothepopulardemandratherthanfollowedthebentofhisowngenius,inturningasidefromethicstophysics;andZenohadsimilarlyincludedthewholeofknowledgeinhisteaching.TheoldGreekcuriosityrespectingthecausesofthingswasstillalive;andasimilarcuriositywasdoubtlessawakeningamongthosepopulationstowhomGreekcivilisationhadbeencarriedbycolonisation,commerce,andconquest.Now,thosescientificspeculationsarealwaysthe76mostpopularwhichcanbeshowntohavesomebearingonreligiousbelief,eitherinthewayofconfirmationorofopposition,accordingasfaithordoubthappenstobemostintheascendent.Fiftyyearsago,amongourselves,noworkonnaturalphilosophycouldhopeforalargecirculationunlessitwasfilledwithteleologicalapplications.Atpresent,liberalopinionsaregainingground;andthosetreatisesaremosteagerlystudiedwhichtendtoprovethateverythinginNaturecanbebestexplainedthroughtheagencyofmechanicalcausation.Atneitherperiodisitthefactsthemselveswhichhaveexcitedmostattention,buttheirpossiblebearingonourowninterests.AmongthecontemporariesofEpicurus,thetwocurrentsofthoughtthatinmorerecenttimeshaveenjoyedanalternatetriumph,seemtohaveco-existedasforcesofaboutequalstrength.Theoldsuperstitionswererejectedbyallthinkingmen;andtheonlyquestionwasbywhatnewfaiththeyshouldbereplaced.Poetsandphilosophershadalikelabouredtobringaboutareligiousreformationbyexhibitingthepopularmythologyinitsgrotesquedeformity,andbyconstructingsystemsinwhichpuremonotheismwasmoreorlessdistinctlyproclaimed.Butitsuitedthepurpose,perhapsitgratifiedthevanityofEpicurustotalkasiftheworkofdeliverancestillremainedtobedone,asifmenwerestillgroaningundertheincubusofsuperstitionswhichhealonecouldteachthemtoshakeoff.Heseems,indeed,tohaveconfoundedtheoldandthenewfaithsunderacommonopprobrium,andtohaveassumedthatthepopularreligionwasmainlysupportedbyStoicarguments,orthattheStoicoptimismwasnotlessproductiveofsuperstitiousterrorsthanthegloomypolytheismwhichitwasdesignedtosupersede.152

HolyeverlastingSaviourofthehumanrace!Bounteousnurseofmortals!Tendermotheroftheafflicted!Notforadayornightnorevenforonelittlemomentdostthourelaxthycareformen,drivingawaythestormsoflifeandstretchingforthtothemtherighthandofdeliverance,wherewiththoudostunraveleventhetangledthreadsoffate,soothethestormsoffortune,andrestrainthehurtfulcoursesofthestars.Thegodsaboveadorethee,thegodsbelowrespect;thoudostcausetheheavenstoroll,thesuntoshine;theworldthourulest,andtreadestTartarusunderfoot.Totheethestarsreply,fortheetheseasonscomeagain;intheethedeitiesrejoice,andtheetheelementsobey.Atthynodthebreezesblow,thecloudsdropfatness,theseedsgerminateandseedlingsspring.Butmywitissmalltocelebratethypraises,myfortune256poortopaytheesacrifices,theabundanceofmyvoicedoesnotsufficetotellwhatIthinkofthymajesty,norwouldathousandtonguesnoranunweariedandeverlastingflowofspeech.Thereforewhatalonereligionjoinedtopovertycanachieve,Iwillprovide:animageofthydivinecountenanceandmostholygodhead,guardedforperpetualcontemplationwithintherecessesofmyheart.397

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  • 雨花郡主CAQJZ

    Thefirstresultofthisseparationbetweenmanandtheworldwasacompletebreachwiththeoldphysicalphilosophy,shown,ontheonehand,byanabandonmentofspeculativestudies,ontheother,byasubstitutionofconventionforNatureastherecognisedstandardofright.BothconsequencesweredrawnbyProtagoras,themosteminentoftheSophists.Wehavenowtoconsidermoreparticularlywhatwashispartinthegreatdramaofwhichweareattemptingtogiveanintelligibleaccount.

     Bothslowlystruggledbackintoconsciousnessinthefitfuldreamsofmediaevalsleep.Naturewasrepresentedbyastrologywithitsfatalisticpredeterminationofevents;idealismbythealchemicallorewhichwastogiveitspossessoreternalyouthandinexhaustiblewealth.Withthecompleterevivalofclassicliteratureandthetemporaryneutralisationoftheologybyinternaldiscord,bothsprangupagainingloriouslife,andproducedthegreatartofthesixteenthcentury,thegreatscienceandphilosophyoftheseventeenth.Lateron,becomingself-conscious,theydivide,andtheirpartisansdrawoffintotwoopposingarmies,RousseauagainstVoltaire,HerderagainstKant,GoetheagainstSchiller,Humeagainsthimself.TogethertheybringabouttheRevolution;butaftermarchinghandinhandtothedestructionofallexistinginstitutionstheyagainpartcompany,and,puttingonthefripperyofadeadfaith,confrontoneanother,eachwithitsownritual,itsownacolytes,itsownintolerance,withfeastsofNatureandgoddessesofReason,inmutualandmurderoushostility.Whenthestormsubsided,newlinesofdemarcationwerelaiddown,andthecauseofpoliticallibertywasdissociatedfromwhatseemedtobethoroughlydiscreditedfigments.Nevertheless,imaginativeliteraturestillpreservestracesoftheoldconflict,andonexaminingthefourgreatestEnglishnovelistsofthelastfiftyyearsweshallfindthatDickensandCharlotteBronté,thoughpersonallymostunlike,agreeinrepresentingthearbitrary,subjective,idealsideoflife,thesubjugationofthingstoself,notofselftothings;hetransfiguringtheminthelightofhumour,fancy,sentiment;shetransformingthembythealchemyofinwardpassion;while102ThackerayandGeorgeEliotrepresentthetriumphofnaturalforcesoverrebelliousindividualities;theonewriterdepictinganoftencruderealityatoddswithconventionandconceit;whiletheother,possessing,ifnotanintrinsicallygreatergenius,atleastahigherphilosophicalculture,disclosestoustheprimordialnecessitiesofexistence,thepitilessconformationsofcircumstance,beforewhichegoism,ignorance,illusion,andindecisionmustbow,orbecrushedtopiecesiftheyresist.

  • 雪灵芝dF5GA

  • 如萱紫儿UNMXH

  • 但法国9BbCQ

     Xenophanesdoesnotseemtohavebeenevermolestedonaccountofhisreligiousopinions.Hecomplainsbitterlyenoughthatpeoplepreferredfictiontophilosophy,thatuneducatedathletesengrossedfartoomuchpopularadmiration,thathe,Xenophanes,wasnotsufficientlyappreciated;Bbutoftheologicalintolerance,sofarasourinformationgoes,hesaysnotonesingleword.ItwilleasilybeconceivedthattherapidprogressofGreekspeculationwassingularlyfavouredbysuchunboundedfreedomofthoughtandspeech.Theviewsjustsetforthhaveoftenbeenregardedasasteptowardsspiritualisticmonotheism,andso,consideredinthelightofsubsequentdevelopments,theyunquestionablywere.Still,lookingatthematterfromanotheraspect,wemaysay16thatXenophanes,whenheshatteredtheidolsofpopularreligion,wasreturningtothepastratherthananticipatingthefuture;feelinghiswaybacktothedeeper,moreprimordialfaithoftheoldAryanrace,orevenofthatstillolderstockwhenceAryanandTuranianalikediverged.Heturnsfromthebrilliant,passionate,fickleDyaus,toZên,orTen,theever-present,all-seeing,all-embracing,immovablevaultofheaven.Aristotle,withasympatheticinsightunfortunatelytoorareinhiscriticismsonearliersystems,observesthatXenophanesdidnotmakeitclearwhethertheabsoluteunityhetaughtwasmaterialorideal,butsimplylookedupatthewholeheavenanddeclaredthattheOnewasGod.15Aristotlewashimselftherealcreatorofphilosophicmonotheism,justbecausetheideaofliving,self-consciouspersonalityhadagreatervalue,aprofoundermeaningforhimthanforanyotherthinkerofantiquity,onemayalmostsaythanforanyotherthinkerwhatever.Itis,therefore,anoteworthycircumstancethat,whilewarmlyacknowledgingtheanticipationsofAnaxagoras,henowherespeaksofXenophanesasapredecessorinthesamelineofenquiry.Thelattermightbecalledapantheistwereitnotthatpantheismbelongstoamuchlaterstageofspeculation,one,infact,notreachedbytheGreekmindatanyperiodofitsdevelopment.Hisleadingconceptionwasobscuredbyaconfusionofmythologicalwithpurelyphysicalideas,andcouldonlybearfullfruitwhenthereligiouselementhadbeenentirelyeliminatedfromitscomposition.Thiseliminationwasaccomplishedbyafargreaterthinker,onewhocombinedpoeticinspirationwithphilosophicdepth;whowaspenetratingenoughtodiscernthelogicalconsequencesinvolvedinafundamentalprincipleofthought,andboldenoughtopushthemtotheirlegitimateconclusionswithoutcaringfortheshocktosenseandcommonopinionthathismercilessdialecticmightinflict.

  • 大笨蛋ISOML

    v

  • 扒皮成PD8aZ

     AnothercircumstancewhichledAristotletodisregardthehappyaper?usofearlierphilosopherswashisvastsuperioritytotheminpositiveknowledge.Itneveroccurredtohimthattheirsagacitymightbegreaterthanhis,preciselybecauseitsexercisewaslessimpededbythelabourofacquiringandretainingsuchimmensemassesofirrelevantfacts.Andhisconfidencewasstillfurtherenhancedbytheconvictionthatallprevioussystemswereabsorbedintohisown,theirscatteredtruthsco-ordinated,theiraberrationscorrected,andtheirdiscordsreconciled.Butinstrikingageneralaverageofexistingphilosophies,hewasinrealitybringingthembacktothatanonymousphilosophywhichisembodiedincommonlanguageandcommonopinion.Andifheafterwardsruledthemindsofmenwithamoredespoticswaythananyotherintellectualmaster,itwasbecausehegaveanorganisedexpressiontotheprincipleofauthority,which,ifitcould,wouldstereotypeandperpetuatetheexistingtypeofcivilisationforalltime.

  • 草莓果RDz53

    CHAPTERIV.PLATO:HISTEACHERSANDHISTIMES.

     

  • 绿卡纸O9Fe4

    Buttheenthusiasmforscience,howevernobleinitself,wouldnotalonehavesufficedtomouldtheEpicureanphilosophyintoatrueworkofart.TheDeRerumNaturaisthegreatestofalldidacticpoems,becauseitissomethingmorethandidactic.FarmoretrulythananyofitsLatinsuccessors,itmayclaimcomparisonwiththeepicanddramaticmasterpiecesofGreeceandChristianEurope;andthattoonotbyvirtueofanydetachedpassages,howeversplendid,butbyvirtueofitscompositionasawhole.TheexplanationofthisextraordinarysuccessistobesoughtinthecircumstancethatthecentralinterestwhenceLucretiusworksoutinalldirectionsisvitalratherthanmerelyscientific.ThetrueheroineofhisepicisnotNaturebutuniversallife—humanlifeinthefirstinstance,thenthelifeofalltheloweranimals,andevenofplantsaswell.Notonlydoeshebringbeforeuseverystageofman’sexistencefromitsfirsttoitslasthour106withacomprehensiveness,afidelity,andadaringunparalleledinliterature;butheexhibitswithequalpowerofportrayalthetoweredelephantscarryingconfusionintotheranksofwar,orgirdlingtheirownnativeIndiawitharampartofivorytusks;thehorsewithaneagernessfortheracethatoutrunseventheimpulseofhisownswiftlimbs,orfiercelyneighingwithdistendednostrilsonthebattlefield;thedogsnuffinganimaginaryscent,orbarkingatstrangefacesinhisdreams;thecowsorrowingafterherlostheifer;theplacidandlaboriousox;theflockofpasturingsheepseenfaroff,likeawhitespotonsomegreenhill;thetremulouskidsandsportivelambs;thenew-fledgedbirdsfillingallthegrovewiththeirfreshsongs;thedovewithherneck-feathersshiftingfromruby-redtosky-blueandemerald-green;therookeryclamouringforwindorrain;theseabirdsscreamingoverthesaltwavesinsearchofprey;thesnakesloughingitsskin;thescalyfishescleavingtheirwaythroughtheyieldingstream;thebeewingingitsflightfromflowertoflower;thegnatwhoselighttouchonourfacespassesunperceived;thegrassrefreshedwithdew;thetreesburstingintosuddenlifefromtheyoungearth,orgrowing,flourishing,andcoveringthemselveswithfruit,dependent,likeanimals,onheatandmoisturefortheirincrease,andgladlikethem:—allthesehelpingtoillustratewithunequalledvariety,movement,andpicturesquenessthecentralideawhichLucretiuscarriesalwaysinhismind.

     

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