本网原创--云南频道--人民网

42wrk-news 发布时间: 2020-07-06 12:48:53

“福建快3一天开多少期”DR.JOHNSONVIEWINGTHESCENEOFSOMEOFTHE"NOPOPERY"RIOTS.(Seep.268.)

Amongstthese,orintheperiodimmediatelysucceedingthem,someindividualsdemandaparticularnotice.BenjaminFranklin,thoughanAmericancitizen,oughtperhapstobementioned,assoimmenselyinfluencingsciencebyhisdiscoveriesinelectricity;andSirWilliamJones,forhisgreatadditionstoourknowledgeofIndianandPersianliteratureandtheology.TherewasalargenumberoftranslationsmadebyPye,Twining,Gillies,Francis,Murphy,Parr,Tyrwhitt,Wakefield,etc.ByoneorotherofthesetheworksofAristotle,Tacitus,Horace,C?sar,Virgil,Lucretius,etc.,werewhollyorpartlyintroducedtous.Monboddo's"OriginandProgressofLanguage,"andHorneTooke's"DiversionsofPurley"madeagreatsensation;Paine's"RightsofMan"and"AgeofReason"astillgreater,andcalledoutelaborateanswers.RichardPorsonwasequallydistinguishedforhisclassicalknowledgeandhisdrunkenness.MaryWollstonecraftpublishedher"RightsofWoman,"asanecessaryaddendumtoPaine's"RightsofMan."TherewerealsoeditionsofShakespeareissuedbyDr.Johnson,Steevens,Capell,Hanmer,Malone,andReed.Warton,Ritson,Pinkerton,Macpherson,andEllisrevivedourolderpoetrybyneweditions.ThecontroversyonthepoetryofOssianranhighduringthisperiod.Intheologyandmorals,theworksofDr.PaleyandBishopsWatson,Horsley,andPorteus,weremostprominent.Inspeculativephilosophy,Malthus,byhis"EssayonthePrincipleofPopulation,"carriedtogreaterlengthsthenotionsofWallaceonthenumbersofmankind.

Onthe4thofMay,1789,VersailleswascrowdedbyimmensemassesofpeoplefromParisandthecountryround,toseethegrandprocessionofthedeputiesofthethreeOrdersadvancingfromthechurchofNotreDametothatofSt.Louis.Thewholeofthecostumes,theorderofmarch,andthespectaclehadbeencarefullystudiedbytheCourt,soastoimpressdeeplythedistinctionsofthethreeOrders,andtohumiliatetheTiersétat.Theeveningbefore,thedeputieshadwaitedontheking,andeventhenhehadgreatlyincensedthoseoftheTiersétatwhocamemostfavourablydisposedtohim.Evenwhilsthe[359]hopedtoobtainessentialadvantagesfromthepeopleagainstthepresumptionoftheprivilegedorders,LouisorhisadviserscouldnotrefrainfromhumiliatingtheThirdEstate.Insteadofreceivingthedeputiesinonebody,theyhadbeencarefullyseparated;theclergywerereceivedfirst,thenoblesnext,andthen,nottillafteraconsiderablepause,theTiersétat.Now,onthegreatmorning,allParisandthevicinity—thousandsfromdistanttowns—wasastir.ThestreetsofVersailleswerelinedwithFrenchandSwissguardsandmadegaywithgarlandsofflowers,andfromthewindowshungrichtapestries.Thebalconiesandwindowswerecrowdedwithspectatorsofallagesandbothsexes—thehandsomestladiesgorgeouslyattired.Thedeputies,insteadofonethousand,amountedtoonethousandtwohundred.FirstmarchedthemembersoftheTiersétat,sixhundredinnumber,allcladinplainblackmantles,whitecravats,andslouchedhats.Nextwentthenoblesinblackcoats,buttheothergarmentsofclothofgold,silkcloak,lacecravat,plumedhatturnedupàlaHenryIV.;thentheclergy,insurplice,withmantle,andsquarecap;thebishopsintheirpurplerobes,withtheirrochets.LastcametheCourt,allablazewithjewelsandsplendidrobes;thekingingoodspirits,thequeenanxious,anddimlyconsciouseventhenofthemiseriesthatweretofollow.Hereldestson,theDauphin,waslyingatthepointofdeathinthepalace,andherreputationwasbeingdailymurderedbyatrociouscalumnies.YetstillMarieAntoinette,thedaughterofthegreatMariaTheresa,theoncelight-hearted,alwayskindandamiablewoman,wastheperfectqueeninherstatelybeauty.Twothingswereremarked—theabsenceofSiéyès,andthepresenceofMirabeau,twomenwhohadalreadybecomepopularleaders.Siéyèshadnotyetarrived;Mirabeaudrewalleyes.Hisimmenseheadofhair;hislion-likeappearance,markedbyanuglinessquitestartling,almostterrifying;thespectatorsseemedfascinatedbyhislook.Hemarchedonvisiblyaman;therest,comparedwithhim,weremereshadows.

ThissuccessionofadversecircumstancesinducedBolingbroketodispatchamessengertoLondontoinformtheEarlofMarofthem,andtostatethat,astheEnglishJacobiteswouldnotstirwithoutassistancefromabroad,andasnosuchhelpcouldbehad,hewouldseethatnothingasyetcouldbeattempted.ButwhenthemessengerarrivedinLondon,helearntfromErasmusLewis,Oxford'slatesecretary,andaveryactivepartisanoftheJacobites,thatMarwasalreadygonetoraisetheHighlands,ifwearetobelievetheDukeofBerwick,attheespecialsuggestionofthePretenderhimself,thoughhehad,onthe23rdofSeptember,inwritingtoBolingbroke,expressedthenecessityoftheScotswaitingtilltheyheardfurtherfromhim.Ifthatwasso,itwasatoncetraitoroustowardshissupportersandveryill-advised,andwasanotherprooftoBolingbrokeoftheunsafepartieswithwhomhewasembarkedinthishopelessenterprise.Onthe30thofJanuary,1793,DundasannouncedtotheHouseofCommonsamessagefromthethrone,communicatingthenewsoftheexecutionoftheFrenchking.ThiswasaccompaniedbycopiesofacorrespondencewithM.Chauvelin,thelateplenipotentiaryofLouis,andofanorderforhisquittingthekingdom,inconsequenceofthissanguinaryact.ThemessagemadeadeepimpressionontheHouse,thoughthecircumstanceswerealreadywellknown.Itwasagreedtotakethesemattersintoconsiderationonthe2ndofFebruary,whenPittdetailedthecorrespondencewhichhadforsometimetakenplacebetweentheBritishCabinetandtheFrenchGovernment.HesaidthatBritain,notwithstandingmanyprovocations,hadcarefullymaintainedanattitudeofneutrality,evenwhen,intheprecedingsummer,FrancewasatwarwithAustriaandPrussia,andwasmenacingourDutchallies.TheFrench,ontheirpart,had,hesaid,madesimilarprofessions.Theyhadpubliclyrenouncedallaggression,andyettheyhadannexedSaxony,overrunBelgium,andnowcontemplatedtheinvasionofHolland.Theyhaddonemore:theyhadplainlymenacedthiscountrywithinvasion.Sorecentlyasthelastdayoftheyear,theirMinisterofMarinehadaddressedalettertotheseaportsofFrance,inwhichthiswasthelanguageregardingEngland:—"TheKingandhisParliamentmeantomakewaragainstus.WilltheEnglishRepublicanssufferit?Alreadythesefreemenshowtheirdiscontent,andtherepugnancetheyhavetobeararmsagainsttheirbrothers,theFrench.Well,wewillflytotheirsuccour;wewillmakeadescentontheisland;wewilllodgetherefiftythousandcapsofliberty;wewillplanttherethesacredtree;wewillstretchoutourarmstoourRepublicanbrethren,andthetyrannyoftheirGovernmentshallsoonbedestroyed!"TherewasastrongwarspiritmanifestintheHouse.Foxandhisdiminishedpartycombateditinvain.ThesameprevailingexpressionwasexhibitedinasimilardebateintheHouseofLords,inwhichLordLoughborough—who,onthe20thofJanuary,succeededThurlowasLordChancellor—supportedtheviewsofMinisters.ButtherewaslittletimeallowedforthetwoHousestodiscussthequestionofpeaceorwar,foronthe11thofFebruaryDundasbroughtdownaroyalmessage,informingtheCommonsthattheFrenchhaddeclaredwaronthe1stofFebruary,againstbothBritainandHolland.OnthefollowingdayPittmovedanAddresstohisMajesty,expressingaresolvetosupporthiminthecontestagainstFrance.Inthedebate,Burkedeclaredthenecessityofwaragainstanationwhichhad,infact,proclaimedwaragainsteverythroneandnation.Atthesametime,hedeclaredthatitwouldbeawarindefenceofeveryprincipleoforderorreligion.Itwouldnotbethelessamostdesperatewar.Francewasturningalmosteverysubjectintherealmintoasoldier.Itmeanttomaintainitsarmiesontheplunderofinvadednations.Tradebeingruinedathomebytheviolenceofmobrule,themalepopulationwaseagertoturnsoldiers,andtoliveonthespoilsoftheneighbouringcountries.Lyonsalone,hesaid,hadthirtythousandartisansdestituteofemployment;andtheywouldfindasubstitutefortheirlegitimatelabourinravagingthefieldsofHollandandGermany.Hedeemedwarasternnecessity.AsimilarAddresswasmovedandcarriedinthePeers.

AnnedemandedOxford'sresignation.The"dragon,"asArbuthnotstyledhim,heldtheWhiteStaffwithadeadlygrip;but,onthe27thofJuly,hewascompelledtorelinquishit,andthatafternoonherMajestystatedtotheCouncilherreasonsfordismissinghim.Hisconfidantandcreature,ErasmusLewis,himselfthusrecordsthem:—"ThequeenhastoldalltheLordsthereasonsofherpartingwithhim,namely,thatheneglectedallbusiness;thathewasseldomtobeunderstood;thatwhenhedidexplainhimselfshecouldnotdependuponthetruthofwhathesaid;thathenevercametoheratthetimesheappointed;thatheoftencamedrunk;lastly,tocrownall,thathebehavedhimselftowardsherwithbadmanners,indecency,anddisrespect."

Itwasthe10thofNovemberwhenMar,awarethatArgyllwasadvancingagainsthim,atlengthmarchedoutofPerthwithallhisbaggageandprovisionsfortwelvedays.Onthe12th,whentheyarrivedatArdoch,ArgyllwaspostedatDunblane,andheadvancedtogivethembattle.Thewild,unevengroundofSheriffmuirlaybetweenthem,anditwasonthisspotthatArgyllonquittingStirlinghadhopedtomeetthem.Hethereforedrewuphismenonthismoorlandinbattlearray,anddidnotwaitlongforthecomingoftheHighlandarmy.ItwasonaSundaymorning,the13thofNovember,thatthebattleofSheriffmuirwasfought.Argyllcommandedtherightwingofhisarmy,GeneralWhithamtheleft,andGeneralWightmanthecentre.He[31]calculatedmuchonthisopengroundfortheoperationsofhiscavalry.Ontheotherhand,Martooktherightwingofhisarmy,andwasthusopposed,nottoArgyll,buttoWhitham.TheHighlanders,thoughcalledontoforminamoment,asitwere,didsowitharapiditywhichastonishedtheenemy.TheyopenedfireonArgyllsoinstantlyandwell,thatittooktheduke'sforcesbysurprise.TheleftarmyretiredonStirlingpursuedbyMar.Argyllwascompelledtobeonthealert.HeobservedthatMarhaddrawnouthisforcessoastooutflankhim;but,castinghiseyeonamorassonhisright,hediscoveredthatthefrosthadmadeitpassable,andheorderedMajorCathcarttoleadasquadronofhorseacrossit,whilewiththerestofhiscavalryhegallopedround,andthusattackedtheleftwingofMarbothinfrontandflank.TheHighlanders,thustakenbysurprise,werethrownintoconfusion,butstillfoughtwiththeirwontedbravery.Theyweredriven,however,bythemomentumoftheEnglishhorse,backwards;andbetweenthespotwhencetheattackcommencedandtheriverAllan,threemilesdistant,theyralliedtentimes,andfairlycontestedthefield.Argyll,however,boredownuponthemwithalltheforceofhisrightwing,offeringquartertoallwhowouldsurrender,andevenparryingblowsfromhisowndragoonswhichwenttoexterminatethosealreadywounded.Afteranobstinatefightofthreehours,hedrovetheHighlandersovertheAllan,agreatnumberofthembeingdrownedinit.Maratthiscrisisreturnedtolearnthefateoftherestofhisarmy.HefoundthathehadbeentakingtheofficeofaGeneralofDivisioninsteadofthatoftheCommander-in-Chief,whosedutyistowatchthemovementsofthewholefield,andsendaidtoquarterswhicharegivingway.LikePrinceRupert,inhisardourforvictoryoverhisenemiesinfrontofhim,hehadtotallyforgottenthecentreandleftwing,anddiscoverednowthattheleftwingwastotallydefeated.Hewascontentedtodrawoff,andyetboastofvictory.

DOCTORJOHNSONINTHEANTE-ROOMOFLORDCHESTERFIELD,WAITINGFORANAUDIENCE,1748.

[Seelargerversion]

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  • 雨花郡主fKCT9

     Stoodwaitingtoo,forwhom?LordChatham."

  • 雪灵芝EXyCI

  • 如萱紫儿Cts5k

    [301]

  • 但法国F0JqI

    SIRROBERTWALPOLE.

     Thenewspringinpoetrybrokeforthasbrilliantlyinthisreignasthatinprose.Intheearlierportionofit,indeed,thiswasnotsovisible.TheschoolofPopeseemedstilltoretainitsinfluence.Thisschoolhadproducedahostofimitators,butlittlerealgeniussincePope'stime.AlmosttheonlyexceptiontothismediocritywasCollins,whoseodeswerefulloffireandgenius.Hediedjustbeforethisperiod,andGray,[182]Shenstone,andGoldsmithopeneditwithmanyoftheexteriorcharacteristicsofthatschool.But,intruth,notwithstandingthemerefashionoftheircompositions,therewereinthemunmistakableevidencesofnewlife.Shenstonewastheleastvigorousandoriginalofthethree,buthis"Schoolmistress"possessedanaturalcharmthatstillgainsitadmirers.Hebelongs,however,rathertothepastperiodthanthis,forhediedbutthreeyearsaftertheaccessionofGeorgeIII.,andhadceasedtowritesometimebefore.Gray's"ElegyinaCountryChurchyard"showedthathehaddeepfeelingandaniceobservationofnature;andhis"LongStory"thathepossessedrealhumour—aqualityaboundinginhisprose,but,exceptinthispiece,littlevisibleinhispoetry.Hisodesareextremelyvigorous,butsomewhatformal.His"Bard,"his"OdeonEtonCollege,"andhis"FatalSisters,"areallfullofbeauty,butsomewhatstilted.Inthe"FatalSisters"heintroducedasubjectfromthe"ScandinavianEdda"totheEnglishreader,butinamostun-Scandinaviandress.

  • 大笨蛋3HvOB

    v

  • 扒皮成hKOMi

     Onthefollowingmorning,beingMonday,theMinisterscametotheresolutionofenteringthebaronet'shousebyforce;and,ashesatatbreakfastwithaconsiderablecompanyoffriends,anattemptwasmadebyamantoenterbythewindow,whichhebrokeintryingtoraisethesash.Thismanwassecured;butamoresuccessfulpartyofofficersbelowdashedinawindowonthegroundfloor,andsoonappearedinthedrawing-room.SirFranciswasseizedand,stillstrugglingandprotesting,wasconveyedtoacarriage.Then,escortedbythemilitary,hewastakentotheTower,amidtremendouscrowds,crying"Burdettforever!"AstrongforcehadoccupiedthepassagethroughtheCity,andhaddrawnupbeforetheTowerbeforethearrivalofthepartywiththeprisoner,whomtheyhadtakenroundbyPentonvilleandIslington.ThesceneduringtheconveyanceofSirFrancisintotheoldfortresswasindescribablefortumultandyelling.Asthesoldierswerereturningtheywerehootedandpeltedwithstones,andatlasttheylostpatienceandfired,killingtwopersonsandwoundingseveralothers.

  • 草莓果r7SXq

    TheBillwaspreparedbythejudges,andafterwardsremodelledandconductedthroughtheLordsbyLordChancellorHardwicke.ItprovidedthatbannsshouldbepublishedforeverymarriageintheparishchurchforthreesuccessiveSundays;thatnolicensetowaivethesebannsshouldbegrantedtoanyminorwithoutconsentoftheparentorguardian;andthatspeciallicenses,empoweringthemarriagetobecelebratedatanytimeorplace,shouldonlybegrantedbythearchbishop,andforaheavysum.TheBillwasopposedintheLordsbytheDukeofBedford,andintheCommonsbyHenryFox,Mr.Nugent,Mr.CharlesTownshend,andothers.Itwasdeclaredtobeaschemeforkeepingtogetherthewealthofthecountryinthehandsofafewgraspingandambitiousfamilies.Townshenddenounceditasintendedtoshutyoungersonsoutofallchanceofraisingthemselvesbymarriage.HenryFoxhadbenefitedespeciallybytheloosenessoftheoldmarriagelaw,forhehadrunawaywithLadyCarolineLennox,theeldestdaughteroftheDukeofRichmond.HewasespeciallysevereonLordHardwicke,accusinghimofseekingbytheBilltothrowmorepowerintothehandsoftheLordChancellor,andHardwickeretortedwithstillgreateracrimony.TheBillpassed,andtherewasastronginclinationtoextenditsoperationtoScotland,buttheScottishlawyersandrepresentativepeersdefeatedthisattempt.

     ThenewAdministrationtookmeasurestorenderthemselvespopular.TheyadvisedthekingtogodowntotheHouseonthe6thofMay,andproposeareductionofthearmytotheextentoftenthousandmen,aswellasanActofGracetoincludemanypersonsconcernedinthelaterebellion.Walpoleandhisfriends,onthecontrary,didallintheirpowertoembarrasstheGovernment.LordOxfordwasnotincludedintheActofIndemnity,anditwasresolvednowbyhisfriendstohavehistrialbroughton.Beforethiswaseffected,however,aviolentattackwasmadeonLordCadogan.AsAmbassadorattheHague,hehadsuperintendedtheembarkationoftheDutchtroopssenttoaidinputtingdowntherebellion.Hewasnowchargedwithhavingcommittedgrosspeculationsonthatoccasion.Shippenledthewayinthisattack,butWalpoleandPulteneypursuedtheirformercolleaguewiththegreatestrancour,andWalpoledeclaimedagainsthimsofuriouslythat,afteraspeechofnearlytwohoursinlength,hewascompelledtostopbyasuddenbleedingatthenose.Stanhope,Craggs,Lechmere,andothersdefendedhim;butsuchwasthecombinationofenemiesagainsthim,orrather,againsttheMinisters,thatthemotionwasonlynegativedbyamajorityoften.

  • 绿卡纸z4iTS

     ThetwoPugins,fatherandson,hadmuchtodowiththerevivalofGothicarchitectureamongus.Thefather,Augustus,borninFrancein1769,cameovertoLondontopractisehisprofession.In1821-3hepublished"SpecimensofGothicArchitecture,"selectedfromvariousancientedificesinEngland;andin1825-28"SpecimensoftheArchitecturalAntiquitiesofNormandy."Theyearbeforehisdeath,in1832,heassistedhissoninproducingaworkentitled"GothicOrnaments,"selectedfromvariousbuildingsinEnglandandFrance.AugustusWelbyPugin,whowasbornin1811,verysooneclipsedhisfather'sfame.Havingresolvedtodevotehistimetothearch?ologicalstudyofstyleandsymbolisminarchitecturalornaments,hesettleddownatRamsgatein1833,andcarriedhisresolutionintoeffectbothwithpenandpencil.In1835hepublisheddesignsforfurniture,inthestyleofthefifteenthcentury;anddesignsforironandbrasswork,inthestyleofthesixteenthandseventeenthcenturies.Theyearfollowingappearedhis"DesignsforGoldandSilverOrnaments,andAncientTimberHouses."Hisexclusiveandardentdevotiontothesestudies,aided,nodoubt,byhishabitsofseclusion,begantoproduceamorbideffectuponhisintellect,whichwasshownintheoverweeningarroganceofatractentitled"Contrasts;or,aParallelbetweenAncientandModernArchitecture."ThismorbidtendencyprobablywasincreasedbyhisbecomingamemberoftheRomanCatholicChurch,inwhichagreatfieldwasopenedforthedisplayofhispeculiartastesbytheconstructionofbuildingswhichheexpectedwouldshamethedegeneratetasteoftheage,butwhich,toooften,werefoundtobegloomyandinconvenient.HisprincipalworksweretheCathedralofSt.George,Southwark,theChurchofSt.Barnabas,atNottingham,theCistercianAbbeyofSt.Bernard,inLeicestershire,thecathedralchurchesofKillarneyandEnniscorthy,AltonCastle,andthemodelstructurewhichheerectedathisownplacenearRamsgate.TheMedi?valCourtintheExhibitionof1851wasassociatedinallmindswiththenameofPugin.Inhiscasegeniuswastoonearlyalliedtomadness.Theawfulboundarywaspassedtowardsthecloseofhislife,whenhisfriendswereobligedtoconfinehiminalunaticasylum,fromwhichhereturnedonlytodiein1852.

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