建设银行捐赠20台呼吸机支援意大利抗击疫情

gjz70-news 发布时间: 2020-07-11 05:52:58

“马耳他幸运飞艇官方计划【18s】”Wehavenowtoseehow,grantingEpicurushisconceptionofpainlessnessasthesupremegood,heproceedstoevolvefromitawholeethical,theological,andphysicalsystem.Forreasonsalreadymentioned,theethicaldevelopmentmustbestudiedfirst.Weshallthereforebeginwithananalysisoftheparticularvirtues.Temperance,asthegreatself-regardingduty,obviouslytakesprecedenceoftheothers.Indealingwiththisbranchofhissubject,therewasnothingtopreventEpicurusfromprofitingbythelaboursofhispredecessors,andmoreespeciallyofthenaturalisticschoolfromProdicusdown.Sofarasmoderationisconcerned,thereneedbelittledifferencebetweenatheoryofconductbasedexclusivelyontheinterestsoftheindividual,andatheorywhichregardshimchieflyasaportionofsomelargerwhole.Accordingly,wefindthatourphilosopher,inhispraisesoffrugality,closelyapproximatedtotheCynicandStoicstandards—somuchso,indeed,thathisexpressionsonthesubjectarerepeatedlyquotedbySenecaasthebestthatcouldbefound.PerhapstheRomanmoralistvaluedthemlessfortheirownsakethanasbeing,tosomeextent,theadmissionsofanopponent.But,intruth,hewasonlyreclaimingwhattheprinciplesofhisownsecthadoriginallyinspired.TobecontentwiththebarestnecessarieswasapartofthatNature-worshipagainstwhichGreekhumanism,withitshedonisticandidealisticoffshoots,hadbegunbyvigorouslyprotesting.HencemanypassagesinLucretiusexpressexactlythesamesentimentsasthosewhicharemostcharacteristicofLatinliteratureatatimewhenitiscompletelydominatedbyStoicinfluences.

Itwas,nodoubt,fortheseandsimilarreasonsthatallthemostvigorousintellectsofHellasrangedthemselveseitherontheStoicorontheScepticside,leavingthehalfheartedcompromiseofEpicurustothosewhocouldnotthinkoutanyonetheoryconsistently,orwho,liketheRomansatfirst,werenotacquaintedwithanysystembuthis.Henceforth,duringaperiodofsomecenturies,thewholephilosophicmovementisdeterminedbytheinteractionofthesetwofundamentalforces.ThefirsteffectoftheirconflictwastoimposeonScepticismanimportantmodification,illustratingitsessentiallyparasiticcharacter.Wehaveseenit,asageneraltendencyoftheGreekmind,clingingtotheverytextureofmythology,accompanyingtheearliestsystematiccompilationoffacts,aidingthehumanisticattacksonphysicalscience,associatedwiththefirstgreatreligiousreaction,operatingasthedialecticofdialecticitself,andfinallyassumingtheformofashadowymorality,inrivalrywithandimitationofethicalsystemsbasedonapositiveandsubstantialdoctrine.WehavenowtotraceitsmetamorphosisintoacriticalsystemextendingitsramificationsinparallelismwiththeimmensedogmaticstructureofStoicism,andsimultaneouslyendeavouringtoreachthesamepracticalresultsbyamoreelasticadaptation144totheinfirmitiesofhumanreasonandtheuncertaintiesofsensibleexperience.Assuch,weshallalsohavetostudyitsinfluenceoverthemostplasticofRomanintellects,thegreatoratorinwhosewritingsGreekphilosophywasreclothedwithsomethingofitsancientcharm,sothatmanywhoweredebarredfromadmissiontothegrovesandporticoesofAthenshavecaughtanechoofthehighdebateswhichoncestirredtheirrecesses,astheytrodtheshadyslopesofTusculumunderhisvisionaryguidance,orfollowedhissearchingeyesoverthebluewaterstoPompeii,whilehereasonedonmindanditsobject,onsenseandknowledge,ondoubtandcertainty,withLucullusandHortensius,onthesunlightBaianshore.ItisthehistoryoftheNewAcademythatweshallnowproceedtotrace.

MeanwhilethescepticismofProtagorashadnotbeenentirelyabsorbedintothesystemsofhisrivals,butcontinuedtoexistasanindependenttradition,orinassociationwithasimplerphilosophy.ThefamousschoolofMegara,aboutwhich,unfortunately,wehavereceivedverylittledirect136information,wasnominallyadevelopmentoftheSocraticteachingonitslogicalside,astheCynicandCyrenaicschoolswereonitsethicalside,butlikethemalso,itseemstohaveamorerealconnexionwiththegreatimpulsepreviouslygiventospeculationbytheSophists.Atanyrate,wechieflyhearoftheMegariansashavingdeniedthepossibilityofdefinition,towhichSocratesattachedsomuchimportance,andasframingquestionsnotsusceptibleofacategoricalanswer,—anevidentsatireontheSocraticmethodofelicitingthetruthbycross-examination.224WhattheyreallyderivedfromSocratesseemstohavebeenhismentalconcentrationandindependenceofexternalcircumstances.HeretheycloselyresembledtheCynics,asalsointheircontemptforformallogic;butwhileAntisthenesfoundasanctionforhisindifferenceandimpassivityintheorderofnature,theirchiefrepresentative,Stilpo,achievedthesameresultbypushingthescepticalprincipletoconsequencesfromwhicheventheCyrenaicswouldhaveshrunk.Denyingthepossibilityofattachingapredicatetoasubject,heseems,inlikemanner,tohaveisolatedthemindfromwhatarecalleditsaffections,or,atleast,tohavemadethisisolationhisidealofthegood.EventheStoicsdidnotgotosuchalength;andSenecadistinguisheshimselffromthefollowersofStilpobysaying,‘Oursagefeelstroublewhileheovercomesit,whereastheirsdoesnotfeelitatall.’225III.

RhetoricconferredevengreaterpowerinoldAthensthaninmodernEngland.Notonlydidmasteryofexpressionleadtopublicemployment;butalso,aseverycitizenwaspermittedbylawtoaddresshisassembledfellow-countrymenandproposemeasuresfortheiracceptance,itbecameadirectpassporttosupremepoliticalauthority.Norwasthisall.AtAthenstheemploymentofprofessionaladvocateswasnot98allowed,anditwaseasytoprosecuteanenemyonthemostfrivolouspretexts.Ifthedefendanthappenedtobewealthy,andifcondemnationinvolvedalossofproperty,therewasaprejudiceagainsthiminthemindsofthejury,confiscationbeingregardedasaconvenientresourceforreplenishingthenationalexchequer.Thusthepossessionofrhetoricalabilitybecameaformidableweaponinthehandsofunscrupulouscitizens,whowereenabledtoextortlargesumsbythemerethreatofputtingrichmenontheirtrialforsomerealorpretendedoffence.Thissystematicemploymentofrhetoricforpurposesofself-aggrandisementboremuchthesamerelationtotheteachingofProtagorasandGorgiasastheopenandviolentseizureofsupremepoweronthepleaofnaturalsuperiorityboretothetheoriesoftheirrivals,beingthewayinwhichpracticalmenappliedtheprinciplethattruthisdeterminedbypersuasion.Itwasalsoattendedbyconsiderablylessdangerthanafrankappealtotherightofthestronger,sofaratleastasthearistocraticpartywereconcerned.Fortheyhadbeentaughtalessonnoteasilyforgottenbythedownfalloftheoligarchiesestablishedin411and404;andthesecondcatastropheespeciallyprovedthatnothingbutapopulargovernmentwaspossibleinAthens.Accordingly,thenoblessetthemselvestostudynewmethodsforobtainingtheirultimateend,whichwasalwaysthepossessionofuncontrolledpoweroverthelivesandfortunesoftheirfellow-citizens.WithwealthtopurchaseinstructionfromtheSophists,withleisuretopractiseoratory,andwiththeabilityoftenaccompanyinghighbirth,therewasnoreasonwhythesuccessorsofCharmidesandCritiasshouldnotenjoyallthepleasuresoftyrannyunaccompaniedbyanyofitsdrawbacks.Here,again,aparallelsuggestsitselfbetweenancientGreeceandmodernEurope.OntheContinent,wheretheoriesofnaturallawarefarmoreprevalentthanwithus,itisbybruteforcethatjusticeistrampleddown:theonegreatobjectofeveryambitious99intrigueristopossesshimselfofthemilitarymachine,hisonegreatterror,thatastrongermanmaysucceedinwrestingitfromhim;inEnglandthepoliticaladventurerlookstorhetoricashisonlyresource,andatthepinnacleofpowerhastodreadthehailstormofepigrammaticinvectivedirectedagainsthimbyableroryoungerrivals.74

Disjunctionis,intruth,theprimordialformofallreasoning,outofwhichtheotherformsaresuccessivelyevolved;and,assuch,itiscommontomanwiththeloweranimals.Youaretakingawalkinthecountrywithyourdog.Youcometoastreamandjumpoverit.Onmeasuringthedistancewithhiseye,theanimalisafraidtofollowyou.Afterwaitingalittle,hefirstrunsupstreaminsearchofacrossing,and,findingnone,returnstolookforoneintheoppositedirection.Failingtherealso,hecomesbackoncemore,andeitherventuresontheleapormakeshiswayhomebysomeotherroute.Now,onconsideringthematteralittlemore382closely,weshallfindthathypotheticalreasoningtakesitsrisefromtheexaminationofeachseparatealternativepresentedbyadisjunctivepremise.Apluralityofcoursesbeingopentous,weconsiderwhatwillensueontheacceptanceorrejectionofeach.Thedoginourillustrationthinks(afteracaninefashion)thatifhejumpshemayfallin;ifhedoesnot,hewillbeleftbehind.Hectorwillnottakerefugewithinthewalls,because,ifhedoes,Polydamaswilltriumphoverhim;norwillheoffertermsofpeace,because,ifhedoes,Achilleswillrefusethem.Oncemore,categoricalreasoningisdevelopedoutofhypotheticalreasoningbythenecessityofdeducingconsequencesfromageneralrule.HectormusthavearguedfromtheknowncharactersofPolydamasandAchilles,thatincertaincircumstancestheywouldactafteracertainmanner.Wemayadd,thatthisprogressofconsciousreasoningisareproductionoftheunconsciouslogicaccordingtowhichlifeitselfisevolved.Allsortsofcombinationsarespontaneouslyproduced,which,inconsequenceofthestruggleforexistence,cannotallsurvive.Thoseadaptedtotheconditionsoflifeareselected,ontrial,attheexpenseoftherest;andtheiradaptationornon-adaptationisdeterminedinaccordancewithcategoricallaws.Furthermore,theframingofadisjunctivepropositionnecessitatesthesystematicdistributionofpossibilitiesundermutuallyexclusiveheads,thusinvolvingthelogicalprocessesofdefinition,division,andclassification.Dialectic,asPlatounderstoodit,consistedalmostentirelyinthejointperformanceoftheseoperations;—aprocesswhichAristotleregardsastheimmediatebutveryimperfectprecursorofhisownsyllogisticmethod.276Youcannot,hesays,proveanythingbydividing,forinstance,alllivingthingsintothetwoclasses,mortalandimmortal;unless,indeed,youassumetheverypointunderdiscussion—towhichclassaparticularspeciesbelongs.Yetthisishowheconstantlyreasonshimself;andevendemonstrativereason383ing,asheinterpretsit,impliesthepossessionofaready-madeclassification.For,accordingtohim,itconsistsexclusivelyofpropositionswhichpredicatesomeessentialattributeofathing—inotherwords,someattributealreadyincludedinthedefinitionofthesubject;andacontinuousseriesofsuchdefinitionscanonlybegivenbyafixedclassificationofthings.

withhonourmayrepayThee,

Theexplanationofthisanomalyis,webelieve,tobefoundinthefactthatCatholicismdid,toagreatextent,actuallyspringfromacontinuationofthosewidelydifferenttendencieswhichEpicurusconfoundedinacommonassault.IthadanintellectualbasisinthePlatonicandStoicphilosophies,andapopularbasisintherevivalofthosemanifoldsuperstitionswhich,underlyingthebrilliantcivilisationsofGreeceandRome,werealwaysreadytobreakoutwithrenewedviolencewhentheirrestrainingpressurewasremoved.Therevivalofwhichwespeakwaspowerfullyaidedfromwithout.ThesamemovementthatwascarryingHelleniccultureintoAsiawasbringingOrientaldelusionsbyasortofbackcurrentintotheWesternworld.Norwasthisall.Therelaxationofallpoliticalbonds,togetherwiththeindifferenceoftheeducatedclasses,besidesallowingarankundergrowthofpopularbeliefstospringupunchecked,surrenderedtheregulationofthosebeliefsintothehandsofa78professionwhichithadhithertobeenthepolicyofeveryancientrepublictokeepunderrigidrestraint—theaccreditedorinformalministersofreligion.154Now,thechiefcharacteristicofapriestlyorderhasalwaysandeverywherebeeninsatiableavarice.Whenforbiddentoacquirewealthintheirindividualcapacity,theygraspatitallthemoreeagerlyintheircorporatecapacity.And,astheEpicureansprobablyperceived,thereisnoenginewhichtheycanusesoeffectuallyforthegratificationofthispassionasthebeliefinafuturelife.Whattheyhavetotellaboutthisisoftendescribedbythemselvesandtheirsupportersasamessageofjoytothewearyandafflicted.Butundertheirtreatmentitisveryfarfrombeingaconsolatorybelief.Darkshadesandluridlightspredominateconsiderablyintheirpicturesoftheworldbeyondthegrave;andhere,asweshallpresentlyshow,theyareaidedbyanirresistibleinstinctofhumannature.Onthissubject,also,theycanspeakwithunlimitedconfidence;for,whiletheirotherstatementsaboutthesupernaturalareliabletobecontradictedbyexperience,theabodeofsoulsisabournefromwhichnotravellerreturnstodisprovetheaccuracyoftheirstatements.

InRome,aswellasinGreece,rationalismtooktheformofdisbeliefindivination.HereatleasttheEpicurean,theAcademician,and,amongtheStoics,thediscipleofPanaetius,wereallagreed.ButasthescepticalmovementbeganatamuchlaterperiodinRomethaninthecountrywhereitfirstoriginated,soalsodidthesupernaturalistreactioncomelater,theageofAugustusintheonecorrespondingverynearlywiththeageofAlexanderintheother.VirgilandLivyareremarkablefortheirfaithinomens;andalthoughthelattercomplainsofthegeneralincredulitywithwhichnarrativesofsucheventswerereceived,hisstatementsaretobetakenratherasanindexofwhatpeoplethoughtintheageimmediatelyprecedinghisown,thanasanaccuratedescriptionofcontemporaryopinion.CertainlynothingcouldbefartherfromthetruththantosaythatsignsandprodigiesweredisregardedbytheRomansundertheempire.EventhecoolandcautiousTacitusfeelshimselfobligedtorelatesundrymarvellousincidentswhichseemedtoaccompanyortoprefiguregreathistoricalcatastrophes;andthemorecredulousSuetoniushastranscribedanimmensenumberofsuchincidentsfromthepagesofolderchroniclers,besidesinformingusoftheextremeattentionpaideventotriflingomensbyAugustus.341

EversincetheageofParmenidesandHeracleitus,Greekthoughthadbeenhauntedbyapervadingdualismwhicheachsystemhadinturnattemptedtoreconcile,withnobetterresultthanitsreproductionunderalterednames.AndspeculationhadlatterlybecomestillfurtherperplexedbythequestionwhethertheantitheticalcouplessupposedtodivideallNaturebetweenthemcouldorcouldnotbereducedtosomanyaspectsofasingleopposition.Inthelastchapterbutoneweshowedthattherewerefoursuchcompetingpairs—BeingandNot-Being,theOneandtheMany,theSameandtheOther,RestandMotion.Platoemployedhisverysubtlestdialecticintracingouttheirconnexions,readjustingtheirrelationships,anddiminishingthetotalnumberoftermswhichtheyinvolved.Inwhatwasprobablyhislastgreatspeculativeeffort,theTimaeus,heseemstohaveselectedSamenessandDifferenceasthecouplebestadaptedtobeartheheavieststrainofthought.ThereissomereasonforbelievingthatinhisspokenlectureshefollowedthePythagoreansystemmoreclosely,givingthepreferencetotheOneandtheMany;orhemayhaveemployedthetwoexpressionsindifferently.Theformerwouldsoonercommenditselftoadialectician,thelattertoamathematician.Aristotlewasboth,buthewasbeforeallthingsanaturalist.Assuch,theantithesisofBeingandNot-Being,towhichPlatoattachedlittleornovalue,suitedhimbest.Accordingly,heproceedstoworkitoutwithaclearnessbeforeunknowninGreekphilosophy.Thefirstandsurestofallprinciples,hedeclares,is,thatathingcannotbothbeandnotbe,inthesamesenseofthewords,andfurthermorethatitmusteitherbeornotbe.Subsequent340logiciansprefixedtotheseaxiomsanother,declaringthatwhateverisis.ThethreetogetherareknownasthelawsofIdentity,Contradiction,andExcludedMiddle.Byall,exceptHegelians,theyarerecognisedasthehighestlawsofthought;andevenHegelwasindebtedtothem,throughFichte,fortheground-planofhisentiresystem.235

WellmayM.HavetsayoftheAcademicians:‘cesonteuxetnonlespartisansd’Epicurequisontleslibrespenseursdel’antiquitéouquil’auraientvouluêtre;maisilsnelepouvaientpas.’250Theycouldnot,fortheirprincipleswereasinconsistentwithanabsolutenegationaswithanabsoluteaffirmation;whileinpracticetheirrulewas,aswehavesaid,conformitytothecustomofthecountry;theconsequenceofwhichwasthatScepticsandEpicureanswereequallyassiduousintheirattendanceatpublicworship.Itis,therefore,withperfectdramaticappropriatenessthatCiceroputstheargumentsofCarneadesintothemouthofCotta,thePontifexMaximus;and,althoughhimselfanaugur,takesthenegativesideinadiscussionondivinationwithhisbrotherQuintus.Andourothergreatauthorityonthescepticalside,SextusEmpiricus,isnotlessemphaticthanCottainprotestinghisdevotiontothetraditionalreligionoftheland.251

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    Such,sofarastheycanbeascertained,arethemostimportantfactsinthelifeofPlotinus.Interwovenwiththese,wefindsomelegendarydetailswhichvividlyillustratethesuperstitionandcredulityoftheage.ItisevidentfromhischildishtalkaboutthenumberssixandninethatPorphyrywasimbuedwithPythagoreanideas.Accordingly,hiswholeaccountofPlotinusisdominatedbythewishtorepresentthatphilosopherundertheguiseofaPythagoreansaint.Wehavealreadyalludedtothemannerinwhichheexaltshishero’sremarkablesagacityintoapowerofsupernaturalprescienceanddivination.Healsotellsus,withthemostunsuspectinggoodfaith,howacertainAlexandrianphilosopherwhosejealousyhadbeenexcitedbythesuccessofhisillustriouscountryman,endeavouredtodrawdownthemalignantinfluencesofthestarsontheheadofPlotinus,butwasobligedtodesistonfindingthattheattackrecoiledonhimself.421Onanotheroccasion,anEgyptianpriest,bywayofexhibitinghisskillinmagic,offeredtoconjureupthedaemonorguardianspiritofPlotinus.Thelatterreadilyconsented,andtheTempleofIsiswaschosenforthesceneoftheoperations,as,accordingtotheEgyptian,nootherspotsufficientlypureforthepurposecouldbefoundinRome.Theincantationsweredulypronounced,when,muchtotheadmirationofthosepresent,agodmadehisappearanceinsteadoftheexpecteddaemon.Bywhatparticularmarksthedivinityoftheapparitionwasdetermined,Porphyryomitstomention.Thephilosopherwascongratulatedbyhiscountrymanonthepossessionofsuchadistinguishedpatron,butthecelestialvisitorvanishedbeforeanyquestionscouldbeputtohim.Thismishapwasattributedtoafriend281‘who,eitherfromenvyorfear,chokedthebirdswhichhadbeengivenhimtohold,’andwhichseemtohaveplayedaveryimportantpartintheincantation,thoughwhatitwas,wedonotfindmoreparticularlyspecified.422

     

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