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ThefamousthesesofGorgiaswerequotedinaformerchapterasanillustrationofthetacticspursuedbyGreekHumanisminitscontroversywithphysicalscience.Theymustbenoticedagaininthepresentconnexion,onaccountoftheirbearingonthedevelopmentofscepticism,andashavinginauguratedamethodofreasoningoftenemployedinsubsequentattacks,directed,notagainstthewholeofknowledge,butagainstparticularpartsofit.ThescepticismofProtagorasrestedontheassumptionthatthereisanexternalrealityfromthereactionofwhichwithmindallourperceptionsproceed.Neitherofthesetwofactorscanbeknownapartfromtheother,andasbothareinaconstantflux,ourknowledgeoftheresultingcompoundatonetimedoesnotshowwhatithasbeenorwillbeatanothertime.ButGorgiasaltogetherdeniedtheexistenceofanyobjectivereality;andheattemptedtodisproveitbyananalyticalinsteadofasyntheticargument,layingdownaseriesofdisjunctivepropositions,andupsettingthedifferentalternativesinsuccession.Existencemustbeeithersomethingornothing,orbothtogether;andifsomething,itmustbeeitherfiniteorinfinite,orboth,andeitheroneormany,orboth.Hisargumentagainstaninfiniteexistenceisaltogetherfutile;butitservestoillustratetheundevelopedstateofreflectionatthatperiod.Theeternityoftheworldisconfoundedwithitsunlimitedextensioninspace:andthishypothesis,again,ismetbythetransparentquibblethattheworld,notbeinginanyoneplace,mustbenowhereornotatall.Andthealternativethattheworldhasnotalwaysexistedisrefutedbytheunprovedassumption,which,apparently,noGreekphilosophereverthoughtofdisputing,thatnothingcanbeginwithoutbeingcausedbysomethingelse.Still,howevercontemptiblesuchreasoningsmayseem,131itisobviousthatinthemwehavethefirstcrudeformofthefamousantinomiesbywhichKantlongafterwardssoughttoprovetheimpossibilityofaworldexistinginspaceandtimeapartfromapercipientsubject,andwhichhavesincebeenusedtoestablishinamoregeneralwaytheunknowabilityofexistenceassuch.Itwillalsobeobservedthatthescepticalargumentsrespectivelyderivedfromtherelativityofthoughtandfromthecontradictionsinherentinitsultimateproductsareruntogetherbymodernagnostics.Butnoreasonthatwecanrememberhaseverbeengiventoshowthatanideaisnecessarilysubjectivebecauseitisself-contradictory.

Asaset-offagainstthelistofparadoxescitedfromPlato,itwouldbeeasytoquoteastilllongerlistofbrilliantcontributionstothecauseoftruthandright,tostrikeabalancebetweenthetwo,andtoshowthattherewasapreponderanceonthepositivesidesufficientlygreattojustifythefavourableverdictofposterity.Webelieve,however,thatsuchamethodwouldbeasmisleadingasitissuperficial.NeitherPlatonoranyotherthinkerofthesamecalibre—ifanyothertherebe—shouldbeestimatedbyasimpleanalysisofhisopinions.Wemustgobacktotheunderlyingforcesofwhichindividual175opinionsaretheresultantandtherevelation.Everysystematicsynthesisrepresentscertainprofoundintellectualtendencies,derivedpartlyfrompreviousphilosophies,partlyfromthesocialenvironment,partlyfromthethinker’sowngeniusandcharacter.Eachofsuchtendenciesmaybesalutaryandnecessary,accordingtotheconditionsunderwhichitcomesintoplay,andyettwoormoreofthemmayformahighlyunstableandexplosivecompound.Nevertheless,itisinspeculativecombinationsthattheyarepreservedanddevelopedwiththegreatestdistinctness,anditistherethatwemustseekforthemifwewouldunderstandthepsychologicalhistoryofourrace.Andthisiswhywebeganbyintimatingthatthelinesofourinvestigationmaytakeusbackovergroundwhichhasbeenalreadytraversed,andforwardintoregionswhichcannotatpresentbecompletelysurveyed.

AccordingtoSirA.Grant,itisbythemysticalandpoeticalsideofhisnaturethatPlatodiffersfromAristotle.Theone‘aspiredtoatruthabovethetruthofscientificknowledge’;theotherto‘methodisedexperienceandthedefinite.’182Now,settingasidethequestionwhetherthereisanytruthabovethetruthofscientificknowledge,wedoubtverymuchwhetherPlatobelievedinitsexistence.Heheldthatthemostvaluabletruthwasthatwhichcouldbeimpartedtoothersbyaprocessevenmorerigorousthanmathematicalreasoning;andtherewasnoreality,howevertranscendent,thathedidnothopetobringwithinthegraspofadialecticwithoutwhicheventhemeanestcouldnotbeunderstood.Hedid,indeed,believethat,sofar,thebestandwisestofmankindhadowedmuchmoretoadivinelyimplantedinstinctthantoanyconsciouschainofreflection;buthedistinctly293assertedtheinferiorityofsuchguidancetothelightofscientificknowledge,ifthiscouldbeobtained,ashehopedthatitcould.Ontheotherhand,AristotlewasprobablysuperiortoPlatoasapoet;andinspeakingaboutthehighestrealitiesheuseslanguagewhich,thoughlessrichandornatethanhismaster’s,isnotinferiortoitinforceandfervour;whilehismetaphysicaltheoriescontainalargeelementofwhatwouldnowbeconsideredmysticism,thatis,heoftenseesevidenceofpurposeandanimationwheretheydonotreallyexist.Hisadvantageindefinitenessis,ofcourse,indisputable,butthiswas,perhaps,becausehecameafterPlatoandprofitedbyhislessons.

CHAPTERI.EARLYGREEKTHOUGHT.

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Yet,howevermuchmaybeaccountedforbytheseconsiderations,theystillleavesomethingunexplained.WhyshouldonethinkerafteranothersounhesitatinglyassumethattheorderofNatureasweknowithasissuednotmerelyfromadifferentbutfromanexactlyoppositecondition,fromuniversalconfusionandchaos?Theirexperiencewasfartoolimitedtotellthemanythingaboutthosevastcosmicchangeswhichweknowbyincontrovertibleevidencetohavealreadyoccurred,andtobeagainincourseofpreparation.WecanonlyanswerthisquestionbybringingintoviewwhatmaybecalledthenegativemomentofGreekthought.Thescienceofcontrariesisone,saysAristotle,anditcertainlywassotohiscountrymen.Notonlydidtheydelight51tobringtogethertheextremesofwealandwoe,ofprideandabasement,ofsecurityanddisaster,butwhatevertheymostlovedandclungtoinrealityseemedtointeresttheirimaginationmostpowerfullybyitsremoval,itsreversal,oritsoverthrow.TheAthenianswerepeculiarlyintolerantofregalgovernmentandoffeminineinterferenceinpolitics.InAtheniantragedytheprincipalactorsarekingsandroyalladies.TheAthenianmatronsoccupiedapositionofexceptionaldignityandseclusion.Theyarebroughtuponthecomicstagetobecoveredwiththecoarsestridicule,andalsotointerferedecisivelyintheconductofpublicaffairs.Aristophaneswasprofoundlyreligioushimself,andwroteforapeoplewhosereligion,aswehaveseen,waspushedtotheextremeofbigotry.Yetheshowsaslittlerespectforthegodsasforthewivesandsistersofhisaudience.Totakeamoregeneralexamplestill,thewholeGreektragicdramaisbasedontheideaoffamilykinship,andthatinstitutionwasmademostinterestingtoGreekspectatorsbytheviolationofitseternalsanctities,byunnaturalhatred,andstillmoreunnaturallove;orbyafatalmisconceptionwhichcausesthehandsofinnocentpersons,moreespeciallyoftenderwomen,tobearmedagainsttheirnearestanddearestrelativesinutterunconsciousnessoftheawfulguiltabouttobeincurred.ByanextensionofthesamepsychologicallawtoabstractspeculationweareenabledtounderstandhowanearlyGreekphilosopherwhohadcometolookonNatureasacosmos,anorderlywhole,consistingofdiversebutconnectedandinterdependentparts,couldnotproperlygraspsuchaconceptionuntilhehadsubstitutedforitoneofapreciselyoppositecharacter,outofwhichhereconstructeditbyaprocessofgradualevolution.Andifitisaskedhowinthefirstplacedidhecomebytheideaofacosmos,ouranswermustbethathefounditinGreeklife,insocietiesdistinguishedbyamany-sidedbutharmoniousdevelopmentofconcurrentfunctions,andby52voluntaryobediencetoanimpersonallaw.Thus,then,thecircleiscomplete;wehavereturnedtoourpointofdeparture,andagainrecogniseinGreekphilosophyasystematisedexpressionoftheGreeknationalgenius.

66AnothermethodbywhichAristotlestrovetoovercometheantithesisbetweenlifeasamechanicalarrangementandlifeasametaphysicalconception,wasthenewlycreatedstudyofcomparativeanatomy.Thevariationsinstructureandfunctionwhichaccompanyvariationsintheenvironment,thoughstaticallyandnotdynamicallyconceived,bringusveryneartothetruththatbiologicalphenomenaaresubjecttothesamegenerallawsofcausationasallotherphenomena;anditisthistruthwhich,inthescienceoflife,correspondstotheidentificationofterrestrialwithcelestialphysicsinthescienceofgeneralmechanics.Vitalityisnotanindividualisedprinciplestationedintheheartandservingonlytobalanceoppositeforcesagainstoneanother;butitisdiffusedthroughallthetissues,andbestowsonthemthatextraordinaryplasticitywhichrespondstotheactionsoftheenvironmentbyspontaneousvariationscapableofbeingsummedupinanydirection,andsocreatingentirelyneworganicformswithouttheinterventionofanysupernaturalagency.

Theremust,onewouldsuppose,besomeforceintheEpicureanphilosophyofdeath,forithasbeenendorsedbynolessathinkerandobserverthanShakspeare.Tomakethegreatdramatistresponsibleforeveryopinionutteredbyoneorotherofhischaracterswould,ofcourse,beabsurd;butwhenwefindpersonagessodifferentinotherrespectsasClaudio,Hamlet,andMacbeth,agreeinginthesentimentthat,apartfromtheprospectofafuturejudgment,thereisnothingtoappalusinthethoughtofdeath,wecannotavoidtheinferencethatheisheremakingthemthemouthpieceofhisownconvictions,even,asinHamlet’sfamoussoliloquy,attheexpenseofeverydramaticpropriety.Nevertheless,theanswerofhumanitytosuchsophismswillalwaysbethatofHomer’sAchilles,‘μ?δ?μοιθ?νατ?νγεπαρα?δα’ — ‘Talkmenotfairofdeath!’Averysimpleprocessofreasoningwillmakethisclear.Theloveoflifenecessarilyinvolvesaconstantuseofprecautionsagainstitsloss.Thecertaintyofdeathmeansthecertaintythattheseprecautionsshallonedayproveunavailing;theconsciousnessofitsnearapproachmeanstheconsciousnessthattheyhaveactuallyfailed.Inbothcasestheresultmustbeasenseofbaffledorarrestedeffort,moreorlessfeeblewhenitisimagined,moreorlessacutewhenititisrealised.Butthisdiversionoftheconsciousenergiesfromtheiraccustomedchannel,thisturningbackofthefeelingsonthemselves,constitutestheessenceofallemotion;andwheretheobjectofthearrestedenergieswastoavertadanger,itconstitutestheemotionoffear.Thus,byaninevitablelaw,theloveoflifehasforitsreversesidethedreadofdeath.Nowtheloveoflifeisguaranteedbythesurvivalofthefittest;itmustlastaslongasthehumanrace,for91withoutittheracecouldnotlastatall.If,asEpicurusurged,thesupremedesirabilityofpleasureisprovedbyitsbeingtheuniversalobjectofpursuitamongallspeciesofanimals,177thesupremehatefulnessofdeathisprovedbyananalogousexperience;andwemaybesurethat,evenifpessimismbecametheacceptedfaith,thedarkenedprospectwouldleadtonorelaxationofourgrasponlife.Asimilarmodeofreasoningappliestothesorrowandanguish,mortiscomitesetfunerisatri,fromwhichthebenevolentRomanpoetwouldfainrelieveus.For,amongasocialspecies,theinstinctforpreservingothersissecondonlytotheinstinctofself-preservation,andfrequentlyrisessuperiortoit.Accordingly,thelossofthosewhomwelovecauses,andmustalwayscauseus,adoubledistress.Thereis,first,thesimplepainduetotheeternallossoftheirsociety,apainofwhichLucretiustakesnoaccount.And,secondly,thereisthearrestofallhelpfulactivityontheirbehalf,thecontinualimpulsetodosomethingforthem,coupledwiththechillingconsciousnessthatitistoolate,thatnothingmorecanbedone.Sostrong,indeed,isthislatterfeelingthatitoftencausesthelossofthosewhoseexistencewasaburdentothemselvesandothers,tobekeenlyfelt,ifonlythesurvivorswereaccustomed,asamatterofduty,tocareforthemandtostruggleagainstthediseasefromwhichtheysuffered.Philosophymayhelptofilluptheblanksthuscreated,bydirectingourthoughtstoobjectsofperennialinterest,andshemaylegitimatelydiscouragetheaffectationorthefosteringofaffliction;buttheblanksthemselvesshecannotexplainaway,withoutforfeitingallclaimonourallegianceastheultimateandincorruptiblearbitressoftruth.

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     Wehavenotfartoseekforthecauseofthisfatalcondemnation.Neo-Platonismisnothingifnotasystem,andasasystemitisfalse,andnotonlyfalsebutoutofrelationtoeveryacceptedbelief.IncombiningthedialecticofPlatowiththemetaphysicsofAristotleandthephysicsofStoicism,Plotinushascontrivedtorobeachofwhateverplausibilityitoncepossessed.ThePlatonicdoctrineofIdeaswasanattempttoexpresssomethingveryrealandimportant,thedistinctionbetweenlawsandfactsinNature,betweengeneralprinciplesandparticularobservationsinscience,betweenethicalstandardsandeverydaypracticeinlife.TheeternalNousofAristotlerepresentedtheupwardstruggleofNaturethroughmechanical,chemical,andvital337movementstoself-consciousthought.Theworld-soulofStoicismrepresentedareturntomonism,aprotestagainsttheunphilosophicalantithesisbetweenGodandtheworld,spiritandmatter,necessityandfree-will.PlotinusattemptstorationalisetheIdeasbyshuttingthemupintheAristotelianNous,withtheeffectofseveringthemstillmorehopelesslyfromtherealworld,and,atthesametime,makingtheirsubjectiveoriginstillmoreflagrantlyapparentthanbefore.AndalongwiththeStoicconceptionofaworld-soul,hepreservesallthosesuperstitiousfanciesaboutsecretspiritualsympathiesandaffinitiesconnectingthedifferentpartsofNaturewithoneanotherwhichtheconceptionofatranscendentNous,asoriginallyunderstoodbyAristotle,hadatleastthemeritofexcluding.Finally,byatremendouswrenchofabstraction,theunityofexistenceistornawayfromexistenceitself,andthemostrelativeofallconceptionsisputoutofrelationtothethoughtwhich,intheverysamebreath,itisdeclaredtocondition,andtothethingswhichitisdeclaredtocreate.

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    ItremainsforustoglanceatthecontroversywhichhaslongbeencarriedonrespectingthetruepositionoftheSophistsinGreeklifeandthought.Wehavealreadyalludedtothebynomeansfavourablejudgmentpassedonthembysomeamongtheircontemporaries.Socratescondemnedthemseverely,Hbutonlybecausetheyreceivedpaymentfortheirlessons;andthesentimentwasprobablyechoedbymanywhohadneitherhisdisinterestednessnorhisfrugality.TomakeprofitbyintellectualworkwasnotunusualinGreece.Pheidiassoldhisstatues;Pindarspenthislifewritingformoney;SimonidesandSophocleswerechargedwithshowingtoogreateagernessinthepursuitofgain.75Butaman’sconversationwithhisfriendshadalwaysbeengratuitous,andthenovelideaofchargingahighfeeforitexcitedconsiderableoffence.Socratescalleditprostitution—thesaleofthatwhichshouldbethefreegiftoflove—withoutperhapssufficientlyconsideringthatthesameprivilegehadformerlybeenpurchasedwithamoredishonourableprice.Healsoconsideredthatafreemanwasdegradedbyplacinghimselfatthebeckandcallofanother,althoughitwouldappearthattheSophistschosetheirowntimeforlecturing,andwerecertainlynotmoreslavesthanasculptororpoetwhohadreceivedanordertoexecute.Itwasalsoarguedthatanyonewhoreallysucceededinimprovingthe104communitybenefitedsomuchbytheresultthatitwasunfaironhisparttodemandanyadditionalremuneration.SupposeapopularpreacherweretocomeoverfromNewYorktoEngland,staraboutamongtheprincipalcities,chargingahighpriceforadmissiontohissermons,andfinallyreturnhomeinpossessionofahandsomefortune,wecanwellimaginethatsarcasmsattheexpenseofsuchprofitablepietywouldnotbewanting.ThishypotheticalcasewillhelpustounderstandhowmanyanhonestAthenianmusthavefelttowardstheshowycolonialstrangerswhoweremakingsuchalucrativebusinessofteachingmoderationandjustice.Plato,speakingforhismasterbutnotfromhismaster’sstandpoint,raisedanentirelydifferentobjection.HesawnoreasonwhytheSophistsshouldnotselltheirwisdomiftheyhadanywisdomtosell.Butthiswaspreciselywhathedenied.Hesubmittedtheirpretensionstoasearchingcross-examination,and,asheconsidered,convictedthemofbeingworthlesspretenders.Therewasacertainunfairnessaboutthismethod,forneitherhisownpositiveteachingnorthatofSocratescouldhavestoodbeforeasimilartest,asAristotlespeedilydemonstratedinthenextgeneration.Hewas,infact,onlydoingforProtagorasandGorgiaswhattheyhaddoneforearlyGreekspeculation,andwhateveryschoolhabituallydoesforitspredecessors.Ithadyettobelearnedthatthisdissolvingdialecticconstitutestheverylawofphilosophicalprogress.ThediscoverywasmadebyHegel,anditistohimthattheSophistsowetheirrehabilitationinmoderntimes.HislecturesontheHistoryofPhilosophycontainmuchthatwasafterwardsurgedbyGroteonthesameside.FiveyearsbeforetheappearanceofGrote’sfamoussixty-seventhchapter,LeweshadalsopublishedavindicationoftheSophists,possiblysuggestedbyHegel’swork,whichhehadcertainlyconsultedwhenpreparinghisownHistory.Thereis,however,thisgreatdifference,thatwhilethetwoEnglishcriticsendeavourtominimisethe105sceptical,innovatingtendencyoftheSophists,itis,contrariwise,broughtintoexaggeratedprominencebytheGermanphilosopher.WehavejustremarkedthatthefinaldissolutionofSophisticismwasbroughtaboutbytheseparatedevelopmentgiventoeachofthevarioustendencieswhichittemporarilycombined.Now,eachofourthreeapologistshastakenuponeofthesetendencies,andtreateditasconstitutingthewholemovementunderdiscussion.ToHegel,theSophistsarechieflysubjectiveidealists.ToLewes,theyarerhetoricianslikeIsocrates.ToGrote,theyare,whatintruththeSophistsoftheRomanempirewere,teachersrepresentingthestandardopinionsoftheirage.LewesandGrotearebothparticularlyanxioustoprovethattheoriginalSophistsdidnotcorruptGreekmorality.ThusmuchhasbeenconcededbycontemporaryGermancriticism,andisnomorethanwasobservedbyPlatolongago.Grotefurtherassertsthattheimpliedcorruptionofmoralityisanillusion,andthatattheendofthePeloponnesianwartheAthenianswerenoworsethantheirforefatherswhofoughtatMarathon.HisopinionissharedbysoaccomplishedascholarasProf.Jowett;76butherehehasthecombinedauthorityofThucydides,Aristophanes,andPlatoagainsthim.Wehave,however,examinedthisquestionalready,andneednotreturntoit.WhetheranyoftheSophiststhemselvescanbeprovedtohavetaughtimmoraldoctrinesisanothermootpoint.Grotedefendsthemall,PolusandThrasymachusincluded.Here,also,wehaveexpressedourdissentfromtheeminenthistorian,whomwecanonlysupposetohavemissedthewholepointofPlato’sargument.Lewestakesdifferent106groundwhenheaccusesPlatoofmisrepresentinghisopponents.ItistruethattheSophistscannotbeheardinself-defence,butthereisnointernalimprobabilityaboutthechargesbroughtagainstthem.TheGreekrhetoriciansarenotaccusedofsayinganythingthathasnotbeensaidagainandagainbytheirmodernrepresentatives.WhethertheodiumofsuchsentimentsshouldattachitselftothewholeclassofSophistsisquiteanotherquestion.Grotedeniesthattheyheldanydoctrineincommon.TheGermancritics,ontheotherhand,insistontreatingthemasaschoolwithcommonprinciplesandtendencies.Brandiscallsthem‘anumberofmen,giftedindeed,butnotseekersafterknowledgeforitsownsake,whomadeatradeofgivinginstructionasameansfortheattainmentofexternalandselfishends,andofsubstitutingmeretechnicalproficiencyforrealscience.’77Ifouraccountbethetrueone,thiswouldapplytoGorgiasandtheyoungerrhetoriciansalone.OnedoesnotpreciselyseewhatexternalorselfishendsweresubservedbythephysicalphilosophywhichProdicusandHippiastaught,norwhythecomprehensiveenquiriesofProtagorasintotheconditionsofcivilisationandthelimitsofhumanknowledgeshouldbecontemptuouslyflungasidebecausehemadethemthebasisofanhonourableprofession.Zeller,inmuchthesamestrain,definesaSophistasonewhoprofessestobeateacherofwisdom,whilehisobjectisindividualculture(dieformelleundpraktischeBildungdesSubjekts)andnotthescientificinvestigationoftruth.78WedonotknowwhetherGrotewascontentwithanexplanationwhichwouldonlyhaverequiredanunimportantmodificationofhisownstatementstoagreepreciselywiththem.ItoughtamplytohavesatisfiedLewes.Forourselves,wemustconfesstocaringverylittlewhethertheSophistsinvestigatedtruthforitsownsakeorasameanstoself-culture.Webelieve,andinthenextchapterwehope107toshow,thatSocrates,atanyrate,didnottreatknowledgeapartfrompracticeasanendinitself.Butthehistoryofphilosophyisnotconcernedwithsuchsubtletiesasthese.OurcontentionisthattheStoic,Epicurean,andScepticalschoolsmaybetracedbackthroughAntisthenesandAristippustoHippiasandProtagorasmuchmoredirectlythantoSocrates.IfZellerwillgrantthis,thenhecannolongertreatSophisticismasameresolventoftheoldphysicalphilosophy.Ifhedeniesit,wecanonlyappealtohisownhistory,whichhere,aswellasinourdiscussionsofearlyGreekthought,wehavefoundmoreusefulthananyotherworkonthesubject.OurobligationstoGroteareofamoregeneralcharacter.WehavelearnedfromhimtolookattheSophistswithoutprejudice.Butwethinkthathe,too,underratestheirfar-reachingintellectualsignificance,whilehisdefenceoftheirmoralorthodoxyseems,sofarascertainmembersoftheclassareconcerned,inconsistentwithanybeliefinPlato’shistoricalfidelity.ThatthemosteminentSophistsdidnothingtocorruptGreekmoralityisnowalmostuniversallyadmitted.IfwehavesucceededinshowingthattheydidnotcorruptbutfruitfullydevelopGreekphilosophy,thepurposeofthisstudywillhavebeensufficientlyfulfilled.

 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    Sofar,thescepticaltheoryhadbeenputforwardafterasomewhatfragmentaryfashion,andinstrictdependenceonthepreviousdevelopmentofdogmaticphilosophy.Withthe137Humanistsithadtakentheformofanattackonphysicalscience;withtheMegarians,ofacriticismontheSocraticdialectic;withboth,ithadbeenpushedtothelengthofanabsolutenegation,logicallynotmoredefensiblethantheaffirmationstowhichitwasopposed.Whatremainedwasthat,afterbeingconsistentlyformulated,itsresultsshouldbeexhibitedintheirsystematicbearingonthepracticalinterestsofmankind.ThetwofoldtaskwasaccomplishedbyPyrrho,whosenamehasaccordinglycontinuedtobeassociated,eveninmoderntimes,withtheprofessionofuniversaldoubt.ThisremarkablemanwasanativeofElis,whereabranchoftheMegarianschoolhadatonetimeestablisheditself;anditseemslikelythatthedeterminingimpulseofhislifewas,directlyorindirectly,derivedfromStilpo’steaching.AcontemporaryofAlexandertheGreat,heaccompaniedtheMacedonianarmyonitsmarchtoIndia,subsequentlyreturningtohisnativecity,wherehediedatanadvancedage,about275B.C.Theabsurdstoriesabouthisindifferencetomaterialobstacleswhenoutwalkinghavebeenalreadymentionedinaformerchapter,andaresufficientlyrefutedbythecircumstancesjustrelated.ThecitizensofElisaresaidtohaveshowntheirrespectforthephilosopherbyexemptinghimfromtaxation,appointinghimtheirchiefpriest—noinappropriateofficeforascepticofthetruetype—andhonouringhismemorywithastatue,whichwasstillpointedouttosightseersinthetimeofPausanias.226

     

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