90後:唱響戰“疫”青春之歌

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“【Afu1o】我去彩票站”Daemonism,however,doesnotfillaverygreatplaceinthecreedofPlutarch;andacomparisonofhimwithhissuccessorsshowsthatthesanertraditionsofGreekthoughtonlygraduallygavewaytotherisingfloodofignoranceandunreason.Itistruethat,asamoralist,thephilosopherofChaeroneaconsideredreligionofinestimableimportancetohumanvirtueandhumanhappiness;while,asahistorian,heacceptedstoriesofsupernaturaloccurrenceswithacredulityrecallingthatofLivyandfallinglittleshortofDionCassius.NordidhisownPlatonisticmonotheismpreventhimfromextendingaverygenerousintellectualtolerationtothedifferentformsofpolytheismwhichhefoundeverywhereprevailing.395Inthisrespect,heandprobablyallthephilosophersofthatandthesucceedingage,theEpicureans,theSceptics,andsomeoftheCynicsaloneexcepted,offerastrikingcontradictiontooneofGibbon’smostcelebratedepigrams.Tothemthepopularreligionswerenotequallyfalsebutequallytrue,and,toacertainextent,equallyuseful.WherePlutarchdrewthelinewasatwhathecalledDeisidaimonia,thefrightfulmentalmaladywhich,asalreadymentioned,begantoafflictGreecesoonaftertheconquestsofAlexander.Itisgenerallytranslatedsuperstition,buthasamuchnarrowermeaning.Itexpressesthebeliefsandfeelingsofonewholivesinperpetualdreadofprovokingsupernaturalvengeance,not254bywrongfulbehaviourtowardshisfellow-men,norevenbyintentionaldisrespecttowardsahigherpower,butbytheneglectofcertainceremonialobservances;andwhoisconstantlyonthelook-outforheaven-sentprognosticationsofcalamities,which,whentheycome,willapparentlybeinflictedfromsheerill-will,Plutarchhasdevotedoneofhismostfamousessaystothecastigationofthisweakness.Hedeliberatelyprefersatheismtoit,showingbyanelaboratecomparisonofinstancesthattheformer—withwhich,however,hehasnosympathyatall—ismuchlessinjurioustohumanhappiness,andinvolvesmuchlessrealimpiety,thansuchaconstantattributionofmeaninglessmalicetothegods.OneexampleofDeisidaimoniaadducedbyPlutarchisSabbatarianism,especiallywhencarried,asithadrecentlybeenbytheJewsduringthesiegeofJerusalem,tothepointofentirelysuspendingmilitaryoperationsonthedayofrest.396Thatthebeliefindaemons,someofwhompassedforbeingmalevolentpowers,mightyieldafruitfulcropofnewsuperstitions,doesnotseemtohaveoccurredtoPlutarch;stilllessthatthedoctrineoffuturetormentsofwhich,followingPlato’sexample,hewasafirmupholder,mightproveaterrortoothersbesidesoffendersagainstthemorallaw,—especiallywhenmanipulatedbyaclasswhoseinterestitwastostimulatethefeelinginquestiontotheutmostpossibleintensity.

Itwasnotmerelytheimmortality,itwastheeternityofthesoulthatPlatotaught.Forhimtheexpectationofalifebeyondthegravewasidentifiedwiththememoryofanante-natalexistence,andthetwomuststandorfalltogether.WhenShelley’sshipwreckedmotherexclaimstoherchild:—

Itwasnaturalthatonewhorangedwithsuchconsummatemasteryoverthewholeworldofapparentreality,shouldbelieveinnootherreality;thatforhimtruthshouldonly319meanthesystematisationofsenseandlanguage,ofopinion,andofthought.Thevisibleorderofnaturewaspresenttohisimaginationinsuchprecisedeterminationandfulnessofdetailthatitresistedanyattempthemighthavemadetoconceiveitunderadifferentform.Eachofhisconclusionswassupportedbyanalogiesfromeveryotherdepartmentofenquiry,becausehecarriedthepeculiarlimitationsofhisthinkingfacultywithhimwhereverheturned,andunconsciouslyaccommodatedeverysubjecttotheframeworkwhichtheyimposed.Theclearnessofhisideasnecessitatedtheuseofsharply-drawndistinctions,whichpreventedthefreeplayofgeneralisationandfruitfulinterchangeofprinciplesbetweenthedifferentsciences.Andweshallhaveoccasiontoshowhereafter,that,whenheattemptedtocombinerivaltheories,itwasdonebyplacingtheminjuxtapositionratherthanbymutualinterpenetration.Again,withhisvividperceptions,itwasimpossibleforhimtobelieveinthejustificationofanymethodclaimingtosupersede,oreventosupplement,theirauthority.HencehewashardlylessopposedtotheatomismofDemocritusthantothescepticismofProtagorasortheidealismofPlato.Hence,also,hisdislikeforallexplanationswhichassumedthattherewerehiddenprocessesatworkbelowthesurfaceofthings,eventakingsurfaceinitsmostliteralsense.Thus,indiscussingthequestionwhytheseaissalt,hewillnotacceptthetheorythatriversdissolveoutthesaltfromthestratathroughwhichtheypass,andcarryitdowntothesea,becauseriver-watertastesfresh;andpropoundsinitssteadtheutterlyfalsehypothesisofadrysalineevaporationfromtheearth’ssurface,whichhesupposestobesweptseawardsbythewind.205Eveninhisownespecialprovinceofnaturalhistorythesametendencyleadshimastray.Heassertsthatthespiderthrowsoffitswebfromthesurfaceofitsbodylikeaskin,insteadofevolvingitfromwithin,asDemocritushadtaught.206Thesamethinkerhad320endeavouredtoprovebyanalogicalreasoningthattheinvertebrateanimalsmusthaveviscera,andthatonlytheirextrememinutenesspreventsusfromperceivingthem;aviewwhichhissuccessorwillnotadmit.207Infact,whereverthelinebetweenthevisibleandtheinvisibleiscrossed,Aristotle’spowersaresuddenlyparalysed,asifbyenchantment.Thetwoelementsoferrorandachievementaresointimatelyblendedandmutuallyconditionedinthephilosophywhichwehavebeenreviewing,thattodecideontheirrespectiveimportanceisimpossiblewithoutfirstdecidingonastilllargerquestion—thevalueofsystematicthoughtassuch,andapartfromitsactualcontent.ForAristotlewasperhapsthegreatestmasterofsystematisationthateverlived.The401frameworkandlanguageofsciencearestill,toagreatextent,whathemadethem;anditremainstobeseenwhethertheywilleverbecompletelyremodelled.Yeteventhisgifthasnotbeenanunmixedbenefit,foritwaslongusedintheserviceoffalsedoctrines,anditstillinducescriticstoreadintotheAristotelianformstruthswhichtheydonotreallycontain.Letusconcludebyobservingthatofalltheancients,orevenofallthinkersbeforetheeighteenthcentury,thereisnonetowhomthemethodsandresultsofmodernsciencecouldsoeasilybeexplained.Whilefindingthattheyreversedhisownmostcherishedconvictionsoneverypoint,hewouldstillbepreparedbyhislogicalstudiestoappreciatetheevidenceonwhichtheyrest,andbyhisardentloveoftruthtoacceptthemwithoutreserve.Mostofallwouldhewelcomeourastronomyandourbiologywithwonderanddelight,whileviewingthedevelopmentofmodernmachinerywithmuchmorequalifiedadmiration,andtheprogressofdemocracyperhapswithsuspiciousfear.HewhothoughtthatthemindandbodyofanartisanwerealikedebasedbytheexerciseofsomesimplehandicraftunderthepurebrightskyofGreece,whatwouldhehavesaidtotheeffectwroughtonhumanbeingsbythenoisome,grinding,sunless,soullessdrudgeryofourfactoriesandmines!Howprofoundlyunfittedwouldhehavedeemeditsvictimstoinfluencethosepoliticalissueswithwhichtheinterestsofscienceareeverydaybecomingmorevitallyconnected!Yetslowly,perhaps,andunwillingly,hemightbebroughttoperceivethatourindustryhasbeentheindispensablebasisofourknowledge,assupplyingboththematerialmeansandthemoralendsofitscultivation.Hemightalsolearnthatthereisanevencloserrelationshipbetweenthetwo:thatwhilethesupportersofprivilegeareleaguedforthemaintenanceofsuperstition,theworkers,andthosewhoadvocatetheirclaimstopoliticalequality,areleaguedforitsrestraintandoverthrow.Andif402hestillshrankbackfromtheheatandsmokeandturmoilamidwhichthegeniusofouragestands,likeanotherHeracleitus,infeverishexcitement,bythesteam-furnacewhenceitspowersofrevolutionarytransmutationarederived,wetoomightreapplythewordsoftheoldEphesianprophet,biddinghimenterboldly,forherealsotherearegods.

CHAPTERVII.THESYSTEMATICPHILOSOPHYOFARISTOTLE.

TheeffectaimedatbyancientScepticismunderitslastformwastothrowbackreflectiononitsoriginalstarting-point.Lifewasoncemorehandedovertotheguidanceofsense,appetite,custom,andart.303Wemaycallthisresiduumthephilosophyofthedinner-bell.Thatinstitutionimpliesthefeelingofhunger,thedirectingsensationofsound,thehabitofeatingtogetheratafixedtime,andtheartofdeterminingtimebyobservingthecelestialrevolutions.Evensolimitedaviewcontainsindefinitepossibilitiesofexpansion.Itinvolvesthethreefundamentalrelationsthatotherphilosophieshavefortheirobjecttoworkoutwithgreaterdistinctnessandinfullerdetail:therelationbetweenfeelingandaction,bindingtogetherpast,present,andfutureintheconsciousnessofpersonalidentity;therelationofourselvestoacollectivesocietyofsimilarlyconstitutedbeings,ourintercoursewithwhomissubjectfromtheveryfirsttolawsofmoralityandoflogic;and,finally,therelationinwhichwestand,bothsinglyandcombined,tothatuniversalorderbywhichallalikeareenvelopedandbornealong,withitssuggestionsofastilllargerlogicandanaugustermoralityspringingfromtheessentialdependenceofourindividualandsocialselvesonanevendeeperidentitythanthatwhichtheyimmediatelyreveal.WehavealreadyhadoccasiontoobservehowthenobleteachingofPlatoandtheStoicsresumesitselfinaconfessionofthisthreefoldsynthesis;andwenowseehow,puttingthemattheirverylowest,nothinglessthanthiswillcontenttheclaimsofthought.Thus,inlesstimethanittookBerkeleytopassfromtar-watertotheTrinity,wehaveledourScepticsfromtheirphilosophyofthedinner-belltoaphilosophywhichtheCatholicsymbols,withtheirmythologisingtendencies,canbutimperfectlyrepresent.Andtocarrythemwithusthusfar,nothingmorethanone192oftheirownfavouritemethodsisneeded.Wherevertheyattempttoarresttheprogressofenquiryandgeneralisation,wecanshowthemthatnoreallineofdemarcationexists.Letthemonceadmittheideaofarelationconnectingtheelementsofconsciousness,anditwillcarrythemovereverylimitexceptthatwhichisreachedwhentheuniversebecomesconsciousofitself.Letthemdenytheideaofarelation,andwemaysafelyleavethemtotheendlesstaskofanalysingconsciousnessintoelementswhicharefeelingsandnothingmore.Themagicianinthestorygotridofatooimportunatefamiliarbysettinghimtospinropesofsand.ThespiritofScepticismisexorcisedbysettingittodividethestrandsofreasonintobreadthlesslinesandunextendedpoints.

WearenowinapositiontounderstandthefullforceofDescartes’Cogitoergosum.Itexpressesthesubstantialityofself-consciousForm,theequalclaimofthoughtwithextensiontoberecognisedasanelementoftheuniverse.Thisrecognitionofself-consciousnessasthesurestrealitywas,indeed,farfrombeingnew.TheGreekScepticshadnevergonetothelengthofdoubtingtheirownpersonalexistence.Onthecontrary,theyprofessedasortofsubjectiveidealism.Refusingtogobeyondtheirownconsciousness,theyfoundinitsundisturbedself-possessiontheonlyabsolutesatisfactionthatlifecouldafford.Butknowledgeandrealityhadbecomesointimatelyassociatedwithsomethingindependentofmind,andminditselfwithamerereflectionofreality,thatthedenialofanexternalworld393seemedtothevulgaradenialofexistenceitself.AndalthoughAristotlehadfoundthehighest,ifnotthesoleabsoluteactualityinself-thinkingthought,heprojectedittosuchadistancefromhumanpersonalitythatitsbearingonthescepticalcontroversyhadpassedunperceived.Descartesbeganhisdemonstrationatthepointwherealltheancientsystemshadconverged,butfailedtodiscoverinwhatdirectiontheconditionsoftheproblemrequiredthattheyshouldbeprolonged.NomistakecanbegreaterthantoregardhimastheprecursorofGermanphilosophy.Thelatteroriginatedquiteindependentlyofhisteaching,thoughnotperhapsofhisexample,inthecombinationofamuchprofounderscepticismwithamuchwiderknowledgeofdogmaticmetaphysics.Hismethodistheveryreverseoftrueidealism.TheCogitoergosumisnotatakingupofexistenceintothought,butratheraconversionofthoughtintooneparticulartypeofexistence.Now,aswehaveseen,allotherexistencewasconceivedasextension,andhowevercarefullythoughtmightbedistinguishedfromthisasabsolutelyindivisible,itwasspeedilyreducedtothesamegeneralpatternofinclusion,limitation,andexpansion.WhereasKant,Fichte,andHegelafterwardsdweltontheformofthought,Descartesattendedonlytoitscontent,ortothatinwhichitwascontained.Inotherwords,hebeganbyconsideringnothowhethoughtbutwhathethoughtandwhenceitcame—hisideasandtheirsupposedderivationfromahighersphere.Take,forexample,histwogreatmethodsforprovingtheexistenceofGod.Wehaveinourmindstheideaofaperfectbeing—atleastDescartesprofessedtohavesuchanideainhismind,—andwe,asimperfectbeings,couldnothaveoriginateditforourselves.Itmust,therefore,havebeenplacedtherebyaperfectbeingactingonusfromwithout.Itisheretakenforgrantedthatthemechanicalequivalencebetweenmaterialeffectsandtheircausesmustobtaininaworldwherespatialrelations,andthereforemeasurement,arepresumably394unknown.And,secondly,existence,asaperfection,isinvolvedintheideaofaperfectbeing;thereforesuchabeingcanonlybeconceivedasexisting.Herethereseemstobeaconfusednotionthatbecausethepropertiesofageometricalfigurecanbededucedfromitsdefinition,thereforetheexistenceofsomethingmorethanasimpleideacanbededucedfromthedefinitionofthatideaitself.Butbesidesthemathematicalinfluence,therewasevidentlyaPlatonicinfluenceatwork;andoneisremindedofPlato’sargumentthatthesoulcannotdiebecauseitparticipatesintheideaoflife.SuchfallacieswereimpossiblesolongasAristotle’slogiccontinuedtobecarefullystudied,andtheygraduallydisappearedwithitsrevival.Meanwhilethecatwasaway,andthemiceusedtheiropportunity.

Notwithstandingtheimportanceofthisimpulse,itdoesnotrepresentthewholeeffectproducedbyProtagorasonphilosophy.HiseristicmethodwastakenupbytheMegaricschool,andatfirstcombinedwithotherelementsborrowedfromParmenidesandSocrates,butultimatelyextricatedfromthemandusedasacriticalsolventofalldogmatismbythelaterSceptics.Fromtheirwritings,afteralongintervalofenforcedsilence,itpassedovertoMontaigne,Bayle,Hume,andKant,withwhatredoubtableconsequencestoreceivedopinionsneednotherebespecified.Ourobjectissimplytoillustratethecontinuityofthought,andthepowerfulinfluenceexercisedbyancientGreeceonitssubsequentdevelopment.FortherestrictionsunderwhichAristotlethoughtwerenotdeterminedbyhispersonalityalone;theyfollowedonthelogicaldevelopmentofspeculation,andwouldhaveimposedthemselvesonanyotherthinkerequallycapableofcarryingthatdevelopmenttoitspredeterminedgoal.TheIoniansearchforaprimarycauseandsubstanceofnatureledtothedistinction,madealmostsimultaneously,althoughfromoppositepointsofview,byParmenidesandHeracleitus,betweenappearanceandreality.Fromthatdistinctionsprangtheideaofmind,organisedbySocratesintoasystematicstudyofethicsanddialectics.Timeandspace,thenecessaryconditionsofphysicalcausality,wereeliminatedfromamethodhavingforitsformtheeternalrelationsofdifferenceandresemblance,foritsmatterthepresentinterestsofhumanity.Socratestaughtthatbeforeenquiringwhencethingscomewemustfirstdeterminewhatitistheyare.322Hencehereducedsciencetotheframingofexactdefinitions.Platofollowedonthesametrack,andrefusedtoanswerasinglequestionaboutanythinguntilthesubjectofinvestigationhadbeenclearlydetermined.ButtheformofcausationhadtakensuchapowerfulholdonGreekthought,thatitcouldnotbeimmediatelyshakenoff;andPlato,ashedevotedmoreandmoreattentiontothematerialuniverse,sawhimselfcompelled,liketheolderphilosophers,toexplainitsconstructionbytracingoutthehistoryofitsgrowth.Whatisevenmoresignificant,heappliedthesamemethodtoethicsandpolitics,findingiteasiertodescribehowthevariousvirtuesandtypesofsocialunioncameintoexistence,thantoanalyseandclassifythemasfixedideaswithoutreferencetotime.Again,whiletakinguptheEleaticantithesisofrealityandappearance,andre-interpretingitasadistinctionbetweennoumenaandphenomena,ideasandsensations,spiritandmatter,hewasimpelledbythenecessityofexplaininghimself,andbytheactuallimitationsofexperiencetoassimilatethetwoopposingseries,or,atleast,toviewthefleeting,superficialimagesasareflectionandadumbrationofthebeingwhichtheyconcealed.Andofallmaterialobjects,itseemedasiftheheavenlybodies,withtheirorderly,unchangingmovements,theirclearbrilliantlight,andtheirremotenessfromearthlyimpurities,bestrepresentedthephilosopher’sideal.Thus,Plato,whileontheonesidehereachesbacktothepre-Socraticage,ontheotherreachesforwardtotheAristoteliansystem.

Whetherthereexistanyrealitiesbeyondwhatarerevealedtousbythisevidence,andwhatsensibleevidenceitselfmaybeworth,wereproblemsalreadyactivelycanvassedinAristotle’stime.HisMetaphysicsatoncetakesusintothethickofthedebate.Thefirstquestionofthatagewas,Whatarethecausesandprinciplesofthings?Ononesidestoodthematerialists—theoldIonianphysicistsandtheirlivingrepresentatives.Theysaidthatallthingscamefromwaterorairorfire,orfromamixtureofthefourelements,orfromtheinteractionofopposites,suchaswetanddry,hotandcold.332Aristotle,followinginthetrackofhismaster,Plato,blamesthemforignoringtheincorporealsubstances,bywhichhedoesnotmeanwhatwouldnowbeunderstood—feelingsorstatesofconsciousness,oreventhespiritualsubstratumofconsciousness—butratherthegeneralqualitiesorassemblagesofqualitieswhichremainconstantamidthefluctuationsofsensiblephenomena;considered,letusobserve,notassubjectivethoughts,butasobjectiverealities.Anotherdeficiencyintheolderphysicaltheoriesisthattheyeitherignoretheefficientcauseofmotionaltogether(likeThales),orassigncausesnotadequatetothepurpose(likeEmpedocles);orwhentheyhitonthetruecausedonotmaketherightuseofit(likeAnaxagoras).Lastly,theyhaveomittedtostudythefinalcauseofathing—thegoodforwhichitexists.

OfAristotleandhisphilosophie.’

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  • 雨花郡主y7k0a

    ThetitleofthischaptermayhaveseemedtopromisemorethanacasualmentionofthethinkerinwhomGreekHumanismattaineditsloftiestandpurestexpression.Butinhistory,nolessthaninlife,SocratesmusteverstandapartfromtheSophists.Beyondandaboveallspecialitiesofteaching,thetranscendentdignityofacharacterwhichpersonifiedphilosophyitselfdemandsaseparatetreatment.Readerswhohavefollowedusthusfarmayfeelinterestedinanattempttothrowsomenewlightononewhowasariddletohiscontemporaries,andhasremainedariddletoafter-ages.

     VI.

  • 雪灵芝YrP6c

    CHAPTERIV.THERELIGIOUSREVIVAL.

  • 如萱紫儿k8zpL

  • 但法国tGxU2

     IncriticisingtheStoicsystemasawhole,theNewAcademyandthelaterScepticshadincidentallydweltonsundryabsurditieswhichfollowedfromthematerialisticinterpretationofknowledge;andPlotinusevidentlyderivedsomeofhismostforcibleobjectionsfromtheirwritings;butnopreviousphilosopherthatweknowofhadsetforththewholecaseforspiritualismandagainstmaterialismwithsuchtellingeffect.Andwhatis,perhaps,moreimportantthananyoriginalityindetail,istheprofoundinsightshowninchoosingthiswholequestionofspiritualismversusmaterialismforthegroundwhereonthecombinedforcesofPlatoandAristotleweretofighttheirfirstbattleagainstthenaturalisticsystemwhichhadtriumphedoverthemfivecenturiesbefore.ItwasondialecticalandethicalgroundsthatthecontroversybetweenPorchandAcademy,onethicalandreligiousgroundsthatthecontroversybetweenEpicureanismandallotherschoolsofphilosophy,hadhithertobeenconducted.CiceroandPlutarchneveralludetotheiropponentsasmaterialists.Onlyonce,inhispolemicagainstCol?tes,doesPlutarchobservethatneitherasoulnoranythingelsecouldbemadeoutofatoms,butthisisbecausetheyarediscrete,notbecausetheyareextended.446Fortherest,hismethodistotripuphisopponentsbypointingouttheirinconsistencies,ratherthantocutthegroundfromundertheirfeetbyprovingthattheirtheoryoftheuniverseiswrong.

  • 大笨蛋dhbX1

    v

  • 扒皮成y9YWE

    Andnow,lookingbackonhiscosmology,wecanseethatAristotlewasneversonearthetruthaswhenhetriedtobridgeoverthegulfbetweenhistwospheres,theonecorruptibleandtheothereternal,bytheideaofmotionconsideredasaspecificpropertyofallmatter,andpersistingthroughall364time;asalinkbetweenthecelestialrevolutionsandthechangesoccurringonorneartheearth’ssurface;and,finally,asthedirectcauseofheat,thegreatagentactinginoppositiontogravity—whichlastviewmayhavesuggestedBacon’scapitaldiscovery,thatheatisitselfamodeofmotion.

     ItmaybesaidthatallthisonlyprovesSocratestohavebeen,inhisownestimation,agoodandhappy,butnotnecessarilyawiseman.Withhim,however,thelastoftheseconditionswasinseparablefromtheothertwo.Hewaspreparedtodemonstrate,stepbystep,thathisconductwasregulatedbyfixedandascertainableprinciples,andwasofthekindbestadaptedtosecurehappinessbothforhimselfandforothers.Thatthereweredeficienciesinhisethicaltheorymayreadilybeadmitted.Theideaofuniversalbeneficenceseemsnevertohavedawnedonhishorizon;andchastitywastohimwhatsobrietyistous,mainlyaself-regardingvirtue.Wedonotfindthatheeverrecommendedconjugalfidelitytohusbands;heregardedprostitutionverymuchasitisstill,unhappily,regardedbymenoftheworldamongourselves;andinopposingthedarkervicesofhiscountrymen,itwastheexcessratherthantheperversionofappetitewhichhecondemned.These,however,arepointswhichdonotinterferewithourgeneralcontentionthatSocratesadoptedtheethicalstandardofhistime,thatheadopteditonrational124grounds,thathavingadoptedheacteduptoit,andthatinsoreasoningandactinghesatisfiedhisownidealofabsolutewisdom.

  • 草莓果nXwmB

     Thus,sofaraswaspossibleinsuchalteredcircumstances,didtheRenaissanceofthesecondcenturyreproducethe271intellectualenvironmentfromwhichPlato’sphilosophyhadsprung.Inliterature,therewasthesameattentiontowordsratherthantothings;sometimestakingtheformofexactscholarship,afterthemannerofProdicus;sometimesoflooseandsuperficialdeclamation,afterthemannerofGorgias.TherewasthenaturalismofHippias,elaboratedintoasystembytheStoics,andpractisedasalifebythenewCynics.TherewasthehedonismofAristippus,inculcatedunderadilutedformbytheEpicureans.TherewastheoldIonianmaterialism,professedbyStoicsandEpicureansalike.TherewasthescepticismofProtagoras,revivedbyAenesidêmusandhisfollowers.TherewasthemathematicalmysticismofthePythagoreans,flourishinginEgyptinsteadofinsouthernItaly.TherewasthepurergeometryoftheAlexandrianMuseum,correspondingtotheschoolofCyrênê.Onallsides,therewasamassofvaguemoralpreaching,withoutanyattempttoexhibitthemoraltruthswhichweempiricallyknowaspartofacomprehensivemetaphysicalphilosophy.And,lastly,therewasanimmenseundefinedreligiousmovement,rangingfromtheologieswhichtaughtthespiritualityofGodandofthehumansoul,downtothemostirrationalandabjectsuperstition.Wesawinthelastchapterhow,correspondingtothisenvironment,therewasarevivedPlatonism,thatPlatonismwasinfactthefashionablephilosophyofthatage,justasitafterwardsbecamethefashionablephilosophyofanotherRenaissancethirteencenturieslater.ButitwasaPlatonismwiththebackboneofthesystemtakenout.Plato’sthoughtsallcentredinacarefullyconsideredschemeforthemoralandpoliticalregenerationofsociety.Now,withthedestructionofGreekindependence,andtheabsorptioneverywhereoffreecity-statesintoavastmilitaryempire,itmightseemasiftherealisationofsuchaschemehadbecomealtogetherimpracticable.TheRepublicwas,indeed,atthatmomentrealisingitselfunderaformadaptedtothealteredexigenciesofthetime;butnoPlatonistcouldasyetrecognise272intheChristianChurchevenanapproximatefulfilmentofhismaster’sdream.Failinganypracticalissue,thereremainedthespeculativesideofPlato’steaching.Hiswritingsdidnotembodyacompletesystem,buttheyofferedthematerialswhenceasystemcouldbeframed.Herethechoicelaybetweentwopossiblelinesofconstruction;andeachhad,infact,beenalreadyattemptedbyhisownimmediatedisciples.OnewasthePythagoreanmethodoftheOldAcademy,whatAristotlecontemptuouslycalledtheconversionofphilosophyintomathematics.WesawinthelastchapterhowtherevivedPlatonismofthefirstandsecondcenturiesenteredoncemoreonthesameperilouspath,apathwhichledfartherandfartherawayfromthetrueprinciplesofGreekthought,andofPlatohimselfwhenhisintellectstoodatitshighestpointofsplendour.Neo-Pythagoreanmysticismmeantanunreconcileddualismofspiritandmatter;andastheultimateconsequenceofthatdualism,itmeantthesubstitutionofmagicalincantationsandceremonialobservancesforthestudyofreasonandvirtue.Moreover,itreadilyallieditselfwithOrientalbeliefs,whichmeantanegationofnaturallawthattheGreekscouldhardlytolerate,and,undertheformofGnosticpessimism,abeliefintheinherentdepravityofNaturethattheycouldnottolerateatall.

  • 绿卡纸0x8mD

    theraceofmendeliver!

     

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