In machinery the ruling form is cylindrical; in structures other than machinery, those which do not involve motion, the ruling form is rectangular.
In a half century past all has changed; the application of the sciences, the utilisation of natural forces, manufacturing, the transportation of material, the preparation and diffusion of printed matter, and other great matters of human interest, have come to shape our laws, control commerce, establish new relations between people and countries鈥攊n short, has revolutionised the world. So rapid has been this change that it has outrun the powers of conception, and people waken as from a dream to find themselves governed by a new master.
A learner is apt to reverse this proposition at the beginning, and place time before skill, but if he will note what passes around him, it will be seen that criticism is always first directed to the character of work performed. A manager does not ask a workman how long a time was consumed in preparing a piece of work until its character has been passed upon; in short, the quality of work is its mechanical standard, and the time consumed in preparing work is its commercial standard. A job is never properly done when the workman who performed it can see faults, and in machine fitting, as a rule, the best skill that can be applied is no more than the conditions call for; so that the first thing to be learned is to perform work well, and afterwards to perform it rapidly.A finisher's engine lathe consists essentially of a strong inflexible shear or frame, a running spindle with from eight to sixteen changes of motion, a sliding head, or tail stock, and a sliding carriage to hold and move the tools.Considered upon grounds of commercial expediency as a question of cost alone, it is generally cheaper to move material by hand when it can be easily lifted or moved by workmen, when the movement is mainly in a horizontal direction, and when the labour can be constantly employed; or, to assume a general rule which in practice amounts to much the same thing, vertical lifting should be done by motive power, and horizontal movement for short distances performed by hand. There is nothing more unnatural than for men to carry loads up stairs or ladders; the effort expended in such cases is one-half or more devoted to raising the weight of the body, which is not utilised in the descent, and it is always better to employ winding or other mechanism for raising weights, even when it is to be operated by manual labour. Speaking of this matter of carrying loads upward, I am reminded of the fact that builders in England and America, especially in the latter country, often have material carried up ladders, while in some of the older European countries, where there is but little pretension to scientific manipulation, bricks are usually tossed from one man to another standing on ladders at a distance of ten to fifteen feet apart.
It is, of course, very difficult to deal with so complex a subject as the present one with words alone, and the reader is recommended to examine drawings, or, what is better, water-wheels themselves, keeping the above propositions in view.
For manufacturing processes, one importance of steam-power rests in the fact that such power can be taken to the material; and beside other advantages gained thereby, is the difference in the expense of transporting manufactured products and the raw material. In the case of iron manufacture, for example, it would cost ten times as much to transport the ore and the fuel used in smelting as it does to transport the manufactured iron; steam-power saves this difference, and without such power our present iron traffic would be impossible. In a great many manufacturing processes steam is required for heating, bleaching, boiling, and so on; besides, steam is now to a large extent employed for warming buildings, so that even when water or other power is employed, in most cases steam-generating apparatus has to be set up in addition. In many cases waste  steam or waste heat from a steam-engine can be employed for the purposes named, saving most of the expense that must be incurred if special apparatus is employed.4. The value of handling machinery, or the saving it effects, is as the constancy with which it operates; such machinery may shorten the time of handling without cheapening the expense.The time in which the contraction takes place is as the temperature of the bath and the cross section of the piece; in other words the heat passes off gradually from the surface to the centre.
Reaction wheels are employed to a limited extent only, and will soon, no doubt, be extinct as a class of water-wheels. In speaking of reaction wheels, I will select what is called Barker's mill for an example, because of the familiarity with which it is known, although its construction is greatly at variance with modern reaction wheels.
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Motion or power may be varied to almost any degree by the ratio between the pistons of pumps and the pistons which give off the power, the same general arrangement of machinery answering in all cases; whereas, with gearing the quantity of machinery has to be increased as the motive power and the applied power may vary in time and force. This as said recommends hydraulic apparatus where a great force is required at intervals, and it is in such cases that it was first employed, and is yet for the most part used.详情
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