类型:奇幻地区:莫桑比克剧发布:2020-08-12 18:25:13


In machinery the ruling form is cylindrical; in structures other than machinery, those which do not involve motion, the ruling form is rectangular.There is no use in entering upon detailed explanations of what a learner has before him. Shafts are seen wherever there is machinery; it is easy to see the extent to which they are employed to transmit power, and the usual manner of arranging them. Various text-books afford data for determining the amount of torsional strain that shafts of a given diameter will bear; explain that their capacity to resist torsional strain is as the cube of the diameter, and that the deflection from transverse strains is so many degrees; with many other matters that are highly useful and proper to know. I will therefore not devote any space to these things here, but notice some of the more obscure conditions that pertain to shafts, such as are demonstrated by practical experience rather than deduced from mathematical data. What is said will apply especially to what is called line-shafting for conveying and distributing power in machine-shops and other manufacturing establishments. The following propositions in reference to shafts will assist in understanding what is to follow:鈥

Trip-hammers employed in forging bear a close analogy to, and were no doubt first suggested by, hand-hammers. Being the oldest of power-forging machines, and extensively employed, it will be proper to notice trip-hammers before steam-hammers.2. The percussive force of spouting water can be fully utilised if its motion is altogether arrested by the vanes of a wheel.

Fourth.鈥擳here is no direct connection between the moving parts of the hammer and the framing, except lateral guides for the hammer-head; the steam being interposed as a cushion in the line of motion, this reduces the required strength and weight of the framing to a minimum, and avoids positive strains and concussion.Reaction wheels are employed to a limited extent only, and will soon, no doubt, be extinct as a class of water-wheels. In speaking of reaction wheels, I will select what is called Barker's mill for an example, because of the familiarity with which it is known, although its construction is greatly at variance with modern reaction wheels.

It is not intended to recommend writing down rules or tables relating to shop manipulation so much as facts which require remark or comment to impress them on the memory; writing notes not only assists in committing the subjects to memory, but cultivates a power of composing technical descriptions, a very necessary part of an engineering education. Specifications for engineering work are a most difficult kind of composition and may be made long, tedious, and irrelevant, or concise and lucid.To direct the attention of learners to certain rules that will guide them in forming opinions in this matter of machine combination, I will present the following propositions, and afterwards consider them more in detail:In machinery the ruling form is cylindrical; in structures other than machinery, those which do not involve motion, the ruling form is rectangular.

The life of George Stephenson proves that notwithstanding the novelty and great importance of his improvements in steam transit, he did not "discover" these improvements. He did not discover that a floating embankment would carry a railway across Chat Moss, neither did he discover that the friction between the wheels of a locomotive and the rails would enable a train to be drawn by tractive power alone. Everything connected with his novel history shows that all of his improvements were founded upon a method of reasoning from principles and generally inductively. To say that he "discovered" our railway system, according to the ordinary construction of the term, would be to detract from his hard and well-earned reputation, and place him among a class of fortunate schemers, who can claim no place in the history of legitimate engineering.I do not refer to questions of mechanical construction, although the remark might be true if applied in this sense, but to the kind of devices that may be best employed in certain cases.

Keeping in view what has been said about an elastic connection for transmitting motion and power to hammers, and cushioning the vibratory or reciprocating parts, it will be seen that steam as a driving medium for hammers fills the following conditions:鈥

In planing and turning, the tools require no exact form; they can be roughly made, except the edge, and even this, in most cases, is shaped by the eye. Such tools are maintained at a trifling expense, and the destruction of an edge is a matter of no consequence. The form, temper, and strength can be continually adapted to the varying conditions of the work and the hardness of material. The line of division between planing and milling is fixed by two circumstances鈥攖he hardness and uniformity of the material to be cut, and the importance of duplication. Brass, clean iron, soft steel, or any homogeneous metal not hard enough to cause risk to the tools, can be milled at less expense than planed, provided there is enough work of a uniform character to justify the expense of milling tools. Cutting the teeth of wheels is an example where milling is profitable, but not to the extent generally supposed. In the manufacture of small arms, sewing machines, clocks, and especially watches, where there is a constant and exact duplication of parts, milling is indispensable. Such manufactures are in some cases founded on milling operations, as will be pointed out in another chapter.

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Machinery subjected to destructive wear, and to be operated at a distance from machine shops鈥攍ocomotive engines for example鈥攊f not constructed with standard dimensions, may, by the detention due to repairing, cause a loss and inconvenience equal to their value; if a shaft wheel bearing, or even a fitted screw bolt is broken, time must be allowed to make the parts new; and in order to fit them, the whole machine, or such of its details as have connection with the broken parts, must be taken to a shop in order to fit by trial.5. Symmetry of appearance, which is often more the result of obvious adaptation than ornamentation.

Here, in reference to teaching science, and by an authority which should command our highest confidence, we have a clear exposition of the conditions which surround mechanical training, with, however, this difference, that in the latter "demonstration" has its greatest importance.Drawings represent and explain the machinery to which they relate as the symbols in algebra represent quantities, and in a degree admit of the same modifications and experiments to which the machinery itself could be subjected if it were already constructed. Drawings are also an important aid in developing designs or conceptions. It is impossible to conceive of, and retain in the mind, all the parts of a complicated machine, and their relation to each other, without some aid to fix the various ideas as they arise, and keep them in sight for comparison; like compiling statistics, the footings must be kept at hand for reference, and to determine the relation that one thing may bear to another.CHAPTER XXI. MECHANICAL DRAWING.




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